Why are some behaviors more resistant to extinction? O Partial reinforcement effect (PRE) O Mower & Jones’ rat study supports the theory that behavior on intermittent schedules is more resistant O Contrary to Thorndike’s law of effect—behavior is a function of its consequeces Why does the PRE exist? O According to the discrimination hypothesis… O It simply takes more time for the subject to realize that reinforcement has stopped when a schedule is intermittent. O According to the frustration hypothesis… O Subjects learn to become frustrated before receiving reinforcement. O This makes the frustration experienced during extinction more tolerable and even a cue for the behavior. O According to the sequential hypothesis… O Reinforcement actually becomes the cue for behavior in CRF O Sequence (involving times with no reinforcement) becomes cue in intermittent reinforcement O According to the response unit hypothesis… O The unit of measurement for a behavior needs to be redefined to reflect how often the behavior must occur to be reinforced. O When the new unit is considered, the rate of behavior during extinction actually declines. What is the matching law? O You can predict a subject’s choice of behavior based on the reinforcement that is provided. O Subject’s spend more time on schedules that payoff better.