Cells/Macromolecules Chemistry of Life Chapter 2 Objectives: Know the functions of each group of organic compound/macromolecule Vocabulary Create a flash card for the following Words (all from Chapter 2 or use Glossary): 6. 1. Monomer 7. 2. Polymer 8. 3. Carbohydrate 9. 4. Proteins 5. Reactant Products Activation energy Catalyst Enzyme Carbon Molecules Carbon Molecules • Can be very LARGE • A POLYMER is a molecule, like a carbon molecule, that consists of repeated, linked units. • Large polymers are called MACROMOLECULES • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates •Compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms •Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of Energy Carbohydrates Lipids •Mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms •Not soluble in water, made of fatty acids •Olive oil is an example •Used to store energy Nucleic Acids •Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus atoms •Formed from NUCLEOTIDES (a 3 part monomer of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base) •Store and transmit hereditary material (DNA) Nucleic Acids Proteins • Contain Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • Composed of polymers called amino acids (contain –NH2 and –COOH) • Some proteins control the rate of reactions within cells, some form bone and muscle, some transport substances into or out of cells and help fight diseases INTERACTIVE •Create a 4-flap book to describe and illustrate the 4 types of MACROMOLECULES! •Must include a picture •Must include a description (can be the definition) Chemical Reactions • A chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals. • Some chemical reactions occur slowly (like rusting), some occur quickly (like explosions) • Chemical reactions always involve the breaking of bonds and forming of new ones Chemical Reaction Brain Pop of Video Clip Energy in Reactions •Not all chemical reactions will start on their own. •The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called ACTIVATION ENERGY. Catalysts • Some chemical reactions that are necessary for life are very slow or have high activation energies. • These chemical reactions are made possible by using a CATALYST. • A CATALYST is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the required activation energy. Enzymes •ENZYMES are proteins that act as CATALYSTS. •Cells use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions that take place within the cells. Catalyst Video Clip Catalyst Graphing Activity Macromolecule POGIL Assessment • Answer questions 1-3 on page 53. • You do NOT have to copy the question, but answers should be in complete sentences, re-state the question.