WHII: SOL 7a, d
Colonial System, Monroe Doctrine
Latin America in 1800
• For more than 300 years, from 1492 to 1800,
European countries, primarily Spain and Portugal,
established colonies to provide raw materials and
trade for the benefit of the mother countries.
• Spanish conquests in Latin America saw the rapid
decline of native populations and introduction of
slaves from Africa. Conquistadors were given
governmental authority by the crown, and they
became known as viceroys.
Latin America in 1800
• The Spanish and the Portuguese governments
imposed the same Roman Catholic religion on
the native peoples, but they brought different
colonial languages.
• The Latin American revolutions of the nineteenth
century were influenced by the clash of
European cultures in the development of
governments and ruling powers.
Latin America in 1800
• Colonial governments in Latin America mirrored
the home governments. (e.g.- language, religion,
cultural traditions)
• Latin American colonies were strongly
influenced by Roman Catholicism.
• Mining precious metals was a major element of
the economies of the colonies.
• Colonies establishes a strict social class system
(Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattoes,
Africans, and Native Americans)**
• Major cities were established as outposts of
colonial authority.
– Havana
– Mexico City
– Lima
– São Paulo
– Buenos Aires
Monroe Doctrine
• After the American Revolution, the United
States wished to prevent foreign interference
in the Americas. The Monroe Doctrine, issued
by President James Monroe in 1823, alerted
the European powers that the American
continents should not be considered for any
future colonization
• The Monroe Doctrine was also backed by the
British government.
• Latin American nations were acknowledged to be
• The United States would regard as a threat to its
own peace and safety any attempt by European
powers to impose their system on any
independent state in the Western Hemisphere.
• The United States would not interfere in
European affairs.
• The document continues to be a cornerstone of
American foreign policy