Structures of different types of Joints

Structures of different types of Joints
Joint Capsule is the fibrous tissue encasing the joint, forming a
Hyaline cartilage covers the ends of the articulating bone. It
smoothes and facilitates gliding movements between the bone
The Synovial membrane acts as a lining to the joint capsule
and secretes synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid fills the joint capsule; it nourishes and lubricates
the articular cartilage.
Ligaments are white fibrous connective tissue, joining bone to
bone. They restrict the amount of movement that can occur at
the joint.
Pads of fat (Bursa) act as buffers to protect the bones from
wear and tear.
The hinge joint only allows movement in one way this is
because of the shape of the bones and the strength of the
ligaments which prevent movement from side to side. The knee
and elbow are examples of this type of joint.
Ball and socket joints are able to perform a range of
movements, because it a cup shaped socket. The shoulder and
hip are examples of ball and socket joints.
The pivot joints allow only rotation. An example is the joint
which allows us to turn our heads from side to side (between
the atlas and axis vertebrae), and the joint, which allows us to
turn our hand over.
Gliding/Plate joints are able to slide or glide over each other
but these are restricted because of the ligaments. These joints
can be located within the carpals of the hand. (Small bones
within the hand).
The saddle joint has convex and concave surfaces that are
placed against each other. This allows movement in two
directions. An example is the joint at the base of the thumb.
Range-of-motion exercises increase the amount of movement
in a joint and muscle. Examples are yoga and tai chi, which
focus on flexibility, balance, and proper breathing.
Low-impact aerobic workouts help stabilize and support the
joints. Cycling and walking are beneficial and swimming or
exercising in water is highly recommended for people with