quality management plan

Project Quality
What is Project Quality
• Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent
characteristics fulfill requirements
• Other experts define quality based on
– conformance to requirements: meeting written
– fitness for use: ensuring a product can be used as it
was intended
• One of fundamental tenets of modern quality
management is: quality is planned, designed
and built in-not inspected in
Project Quality Management
• Quality Planning: identifying which quality standards
are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them
• Perform Quality Assurance: applying the planned,
systematic quality activities to ensure that the
project employs all processes needed to meet
• Perform Quality Control: monitoring specific project
results to determine whether they comply with
relevant quality standards and identifying ways to
eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance
Modern Quality
• Recognize the importance of
– Customer satisfaction
– Prevention over inspection
– Management responsibility
– Continuous improvement
Quality Planning
• It is important to design in quality and communicate important factors that
directly contribute to meeting the customer’s requirements
• Design of experiments helps identify which variable have the most
influence on the overall outcome of a process
• The cost of quality refers to the total cost of all effort related to quality
• The quality management plan describes how the project management
team will implement the performing organization’s quality policy
The Cost of Quality
• The cost of quality is
– the cost of conformance or delivering
products that meet requirements and fitness
for use
– the cost of nonconformance or taking
responsibility for failures or not meeting
quality expectations
Five Cost Categories Related to Quality
• Prevention cost: the cost of planning and executing a
project so it is error-free or within an acceptable error
• Appraisal cost: the cost of evaluating processes and
their outputs to ensure quality
• Internal failure cost: cost incurred to correct an
identified defect before the customer receives the
• External failure cost: cost that relates to all errors not
detected and corrected before delivery to the
• Measurement and test equipment costs: capital cost
of equipment used to perform prevention and
appraisal activities
Perform Quality Assurance
Quality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant
quality standards for a project
Another goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvement
QA support, regardless of the unit’s title, may be provided to the project team, the
management of the performing organization, the customer or sponsor, as well as
other stakeholders not actively in the work of the project
Quality audits help identify lessons learned that can improve performance on
current or future projects
Perform Quality Control
• Quality control measurements represent the result of QC activities that
are feedback to QA to reevaluate and analyze the quality standards and
processes of the performing organization
• A goal of quality control is to determine the correctness of deliverables
• The result of the execution QC processes are validated deliverables
• Many IT professionals think of testing as
a stage that comes near the end of IT
product development
• Testing should be done during almost
every phase of the IT product
development life cycle
Tasks in the Software Development
Life Cycle
Types of Tests
• A unit test is done to test each individual
component (often a program) to ensure it is as
defect free as possible
• Integration testing occurs between unit and
system testing to test functionally grouped
• System testing tests the entire system as one
• User acceptance testing is an independent test
performed by the end user prior to accepting the
delivered system
Gantt Chart for Building Testing into a Systems
Development Project Plan
Project Quality Management