Potential command term assessment statements Topic 11: Animal Physiology 11.3 The kidney and osmoregulation Essential Idea: All animals excrete nitrogenous waste products and some animals also balance water and solute concentrations. Nature of science: Curiosity about particular phenomena—investigations were carried out to determine how desert animals prevent water loss in their wastes. Define osmoregulation: The control of the water balance of the blood tissue or cytoplasm of a living organism. Outline the consequences of dehydration and over-hydration. Distinguish between osmoregulator and osmoconformer animals. Define excretion: The removal from the body of the waste products of metabolic activity including nitrogenous wastes from protein metabolism. State that the malpighian tubule system in insects and the kidney in vertebrates carry out osmoregulation and removal of nitrogenous wastes. Drawing and label a diagram of the human kidney including the: renal cortex renal medulla renal pelvis ureter renal blood vessels Draw and annotate of diagrams of the nephron to show the functions of each part. The diagram and annotations of the nephron should include: glomerulus Bowman’s capsule proximal convoluted tubule loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule the relationship between the nephron and the collecting duct. Distinguish between the composition of blood in the renal artery from that in the renal vein. Explain how the ultrastructure of the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule facilitates ultrafiltration. Blood pressure Fenestrated blood capillaries Basement membrane Explain the selective reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule of useful substances by active transport. Explain the role of the loop of Henle in maintaining hypertonic conditions in the medulla. Explain the role of ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin) in controlling reabsorption of water in the collecting duct. Outline the positive correlation in the length of the loop of Henle with the need for water conservation. Potential command term assessment statements Outline how the type of nitrogenous waste in animals is correlated with evolutionary history and habitat. Ammonia: very toxic and needs a lot of water to constantly remove from fish and amphibians. Uric acid: low toxicity, insoluble, needs little water, uses a lot of energy to produce in birds & reptiles. Urea: medium toxicity, needs some water for removal, medium energy to produce in mammals. Describe the treatment of kidney failure by 1. hemodialysis 2. kidney transplant. Explain the detection in urinary tests of blood cells glucose proteins drugs. Describe the removal of kidney stones by ultra sound treatment.