European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750 - 1000 Dr. Matthew’s History 119 Timeline Europeans and the Environment Sparsely populated, heavily forested landscape Farming Less than 10 percent of land cultivated Low crop yields Climate Improving weather after 700 Constant threat of natural disaster The World of the Carolingians Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768 – 814) Pepin (751 – 768) deposed last Merovingian Charlemagne from Carolus Magnus, or Charles the Great Expansion of the Carolingian Empire • • • • • Army gathered each spring for campaign Carolingians crush the Lombards in Italy (773) Disastrous campaign in Spain (777) Campaigns against the Saxons Bavarians, Slavs and Avars Map 8.1: The Carolingian Empire Governing Charlemagne’s Empire Governing the Empire Income from royal estates Counts as administrators Missi Dominici System very inefficient Help from the Church Charlemagne as Emperor Pope Leo III (795 – 816) Charlemagne crowned emperor in 800 The Carolingian Intellectual Revival Scriptoria Carolingian Miniscule Carolingian Renaissance Alcuin of Northumbria Monks as Copyists Life in the Carolingian World: The Church, Marriage and Sexuality Monogamy Divorce prohibited The nuclear family Christianity and Sexuality Celibacy Sexual activity permitted only within marriage Homosexuality Travel and Hospitality Diet and Health Bread as the basic staple Pork, wild game, dairy, eggs, vegetables Gluttony and drunkenness Medical practices Herbs and Bbleeding Magic Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire Louis the Pious (814 – 840) Treaty of Verdun (843) • Charles the Bald (843 – 877): Western Section • Louis the German (843 – 876): Eastern Section • Lothair (840 – 855): Middle Section Emergence of two different cultures Conflicts between the three sons of Louis the Pious Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Muslims and Magyars Muslims attack in Mediterranean Magyars settled in modern day Hungary The Vikings Germanic people from Scandinavia Warriors and shipbuilders Russia Ireland, England and France Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland Map 8.2: Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Castle at Les Baux Constructed as a Refuge from Saracen raids Eight Century – Provence, France Replica of a Viking house in Denmark The Emerging World of Lords and Vassals Feudalism Vassalage Lords and Vassals Larger horses and stirrups Act of Homage Fief-Holding Grant of land in exchange for military service Fragmented authority in the ninth century Subinfeudation Mutual obligations of lord and vassal A Knight’s Equipment Showing Saddle and Stirrups New Political Configurations in the Tenth Century The Eastern Franks The Saxon dynasty Otto I (936 – 973) The Western Franks The Capetians Hugh Capet (987 – 996) Anglo-Saxon England Unification under Alfred the Great (871 – 899) Growth of monarchial government The Manorial System The Manor Peasants and Serfs 60% of European population had become serfs by ninth century Working the demesne (lord’s land) and paying rents Lord’s legal rights over the serfs Manorial administration Trade in Luxury Goods Map 8.3: A Typical Manor The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization Michael III (842 – 867) Foreign attacks continue Differences with the West The Macedonian Dynasty (867 – 1081) Increased prosperity Conversion of the Prince of Kiev, Russia Military Offensive in the tenth century Basil II (976 – 1025) Emperor Leo VI The Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe Invasion and Assimilation Western Slavs Poland and Bohemia Conversion by Germans Southern Slavs Bulgars Conversion by the Byzantine Empire Eastern Slavs Encounters with Vikings The “Rus” Kiev Vladimir (c. 980 – 1015) Map 8.4: The Migrations of the Slavs The World of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty Abu al-Abbas puts an end to the Umayyads (750) The Abbasid Dynasty New Capital in Baghdad Harun al-Rashed (786 – 809) Al-Ma’mun (813 – 833) Spain and the Continuation of the Umayyads Abd al-Rahman (756) Fatimid Egypt (973) Islamic Civilization Arabic Cities Baghdad Cairo Cordova – Population of 100,000 Science and Philosophy Paper and Books Mathematics and Natural Sciences Chemistry and Medicine Ibn Sina (980 – 1037) • Medical Encyclopedia Discussion Questions How was Charlemagne able to unite and govern his large empire? What role did the Church play on family and everyday life in the Carolingian world? Why were the invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries so damaging to Europe? What is the relationship between feudalism and manorialism? What liberties did peasants give up in exchange for land and protection from their lords? What impact did the Byzantine world have on the Slavic people of Central and Eastern Europe and vice versa? What were the factors that contributed to the flourishing of Islamic Civilization under the the Abbasids?