Review Sheet: Middle Ages & Byzantium World History – T & ND: (pages 177-189, 200-247) The following information is provided as a suggested study guide and forms the major portion of material covered on the test. It is not a definitive list. Any material from the reading, lecture notes, class discussion, or handouts from this unit is eligible content for the test. Studying for any exam requires focus, discipline, and commitment. Your preparation begins as soon as the previous exam is completed. As always, I recommend studying with someone, using a variety of review techniques, trying to anticipate questions, practicing with a map when appropriate, and knowing the significance of events; plan your time accordingly. Terms Chivalry Commons Entrepreneurs Excommunication Fallow Fief Friar Guild Heresy Icon Iconoclasm Illumination Islam Koran Manor Mosaic Mosque Parchment Pilgrimage Schism Serf Theology Tithe Vassal Vernacular Dates 476 622 732 800 1000 1066 1100 1300 1350 1453 People Alcuin Charlemagne Charles Martel Clovis Cyril Francis of Assisi Joan of Arc Justinian Mohammad Pepin of Heristal Pepin the Short Pope Gregory I Pope Urban II Theodora Thomas Aquinas William the Conqueror Events Battle of Hastings Battle of Tours Crusades Great Schism Hundred Years War Mohammad and Islam The Plague Treaty of Verdun Viking invasions War of the Roses Topics Agricultural innovations Byzantine Church Carolingian Dynasty Carolingian Renaissance Centralized/Decentralized Government Development of trade Feudalism Five Pillars Growth of Cities Iconoclasm Magna Carta Manorialism Mayors of the Palace Merovingians Plague Reign of Justinian Role of the Church Romanesque/Gothic Art Scholasticism Places Aachen Avignon Constantinople England France Frankish Kingdom Holy Roman Empire Mecca Medina Palestine/Jerusalem Paris Rome 1. Explain how the Church served to unify Europe? (Use two examples) 2. How did the Franks and the Church work to support each other? (Use two examples) 3. Why is Charlemagne such an important historical figure? (Use two examples) 4. Describe the two systems of manorialism and feudalism. 5. Identify and explain four goals of the crusades: 2 internal to Europe, 2 external to Europe 6. Explain the European shift from decentralized power to centralized feudal monarchies? 7. Describe the basic differences in Romanesque and Gothic architecture. 8. Why did the people of Europe lose confidence in the Church? (Use three examples) 9. How did geography influence the Byzantine Empire and the development of Europe? 10. One historian has claimed, “Without Mohammad – no Charlemagne.” What did he mean? 11. How did the growth of cities have a transformative effect on Europe? 12. What were the effects of the plague on Europe? 13. How was the Byzantine Empire like and unlike the Roman Empire?