Pre-War (Causes of the War, European Entrances into the War) MAIN The “Powder Keg” and the “Spark” Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Tensions in the Balkan Region Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by the Black Hands The Key Players Germany, the Ottoman Empire (Sick Man of Europe), Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria – Central Powers France, Russia, Great Britain, United States, Italy – Allied Powers The Timeline of Events Franco-Prussian War (1871)- Germany wins and France cedes Alsace-Lorraine Germany’s delicate alliance system o Bismarck o Excluding France from all Alliances Moroccan Crises o German use of force (The Panther) Solidification of the Entente- Britain and France share military info Balkan Wars- Austria-Hungary blocks Serbian annexation of Albania and Macedonia Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and the Austrian Ultimatum Declaration of War- Austria on Serbia; Russia Mobilizes; Germany’s “Blank Check” to AH; France on Germany; Britain on Germany The Great War “Total War”- mobilization an entire country for the war effort “War of Attrition”- Tiring out the enemy Schlieffen Plan- Avoid a Two Front War Belgium Neutrality and Germany’s Violation Quick mobilization of Russian on the Eastern front Battle of the Marne- German advance is halted Trench warfare ensues- STALEMATE Trench Warfare New Technology No Man’s Land Death and Destruction Disease and PTSD Eastern Front Russian losses Gallipoli Campaign- FAIL American Neutrality President Wilson- “He Kept us Out of War”- 1916 Attack on neutral ships Sinking of the Lusitania War loans and trade relationships with Allies Russian Revolution Zimmerman Note Declaration of War- “Make the World Safe for Democracy”
U.S. Contributions to War Selective Service- U.S. creates draft Black Jack Pershing and the AEF Convoy System U.S. on the “Home Front” Creation of: o War Industries Board o National War Labor Board o o Food Administration Committee on Public Information Propaganda Minutemen “How the War Came to America” Subsequent treatment of Germans Espionage and Sedition Acts o Charles Schenck vs. the United States o Socialists (Eugene Debs) and Labor Leaders End of the War and the Treaty of Versailles Germany falters o USA entrance o Failure to finance war by taxing firms; Inflation o Resentment of people- rationing and starvation o Armistice- 11/11/18 Paris Peace Conference o The Big Four- Germany is excluded Wilson; Clemenceau; Lloyd George; Orlando Intentions of each? Conditions of the Treaty o Military; Financial; Territorial; Judicial (War Guilt Clause) o Creation of new countries (self-determination) o o o Was the treaty a success? United States- Didn’t ratify treaty League of Nations Social Effects of the War Great Migration Women’s Suffrage 2.
Influenza (Worldwide) In Europe: o Russian Revolution o Armenian Genocide Main Themes 1.
Was the war inevitable? (MAIN) Why was the war so destructive (consider trench warfare and new technology) 3.
Why did the US enter war? To what extent should civil liberties be sacrificed for public safety (i.e. Schenck) U.S. use of “total war” Was the Treaty of Versailles successful? How did it contribute to future conflict?