Cardiovascular System Test Topics

Cardiovascular System Test Topics
Composition & Function of Blood
o Components: formed elements v. plasma
o Functions
 Transport (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients etc.)
 Regulation (temperature, pH, fluid volume)
 Protection (blood loss & infection)
Blood Plasma
o Color
o Substances found in it
Formed elements
o Erythrocytes
 Structural & functional characteristics
o Leukocytes
 General structural and functional characteristics
 Types
 Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
 Agranulocytes: lymphocytes, monocytes
o Thrombocytes
Hemastasis (clotting)
o Factors/susbtances involved
o 4 main events
o What is it?
o Where are blood cells formed?
Blood Vessels & Blood Flow
o Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circulation
o Which side of the heart is associated with each circuit?
o Distinguish between structure of arteries, veins and capillaries
o Relate vessel structure to vessel function
o Generally what direction is blood flowing in arteries? Veins? What is the exception?
Structure of the Heart
o How do atria and ventricles compare in structure and function?
 What valve separates the RA and RV? The LA and LV?
o Know the major vessels involved in blood flow through the heart
 Vena cavae, aorta, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins
 Where does each bring blood from? To?
 What valves separate the RB & pulmonary trunk? LV & Aorta?
o Be able to follow the pathway of a drop of blood from any location through the pulmonary and
systemic circuit back to the starting point identifying chambers, valves and vessels
Cardiac Cycle
o Distinguish between systole and diastole; These terms refer to what chamber unless otherwise
o Identify and describe the five events in the cardiac cycle
o “LUB DUB” What events are associated with each? How do each differ in sound and duration?
Cardiac Conduction & ECG
o Unique property of cardiac conducting cells
o Significance of the sinoatrial node? What other name does this node go by?
o Follow conduction pathway from SA node to Purkinje plexus
o Link events of the cardiac cycle to the ECG pattern
 P wave
 QRS wave
 T wave
o About how long does one cardiac cycle last? How many bpm (beats/min) does this equate to?
Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Cardiac Output
o How is BP determined? What is BP a measure of? What is considered a normal BP reading?
o Causes & effects of high BP
o What is cardiac output? How is it determined?
 CO = HR x SV (average heart rate = 75bpm and average stroke volume = 70mL/min)
Coronary Circulation
o Role of coronary arteries and cardiac veins
o Disruptions of coronary circulation
 Angina pectoris – What is it? What causes it?
 What is atherosclerosis?
 How/why is it linked to high BP & MI?
 How is a myocardial infarction defined?
 What risk factors are associated with MI?
 What are some symptoms of MI?
 How can MI be treated/prevented? Be able to explain each of the following:
 Angioplasty & Angiostents
 Thrombolytic therapy
 By-pass surgery
 Nitroglycerin
 Antiplatelet medicine (aspirin)
At the Clinic:
o Blood disorders
 Erythrocytic
 Anemias
 Thalassemia
 Polycthemia
 Blood doping
 Leukocytic
 Leukemias
 Infectious mononucleosis
o Cardiovascular disease
 Atherosclerosis
 hypertension
 Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
 Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
 Angina pectoralis
 Aneurysm
o Treatments
 Coronary bypass
 Angioplasty
 Transplants
 Articifical hearts