Chapter 8 Market Revolution


Chapter 8

Market Revolution

Section 4

The Rise of Nationalism

Nationalism at Home

By 1820 our country had made the shift in thinking toward the modern view of ourselves belonging to a country under a national government instead of separate states under separate governments

The Supreme Court began to make rulings at this time that helped strengthen the federal government’s role in the nation’s economic business

Nationalism at Home

McCulloch v. Maryland

Maryland placed a tax on bank notes from the Second Bank of the United States

(they wanted to wipe out the bank)

Maryland courts upheld the law and it was taken to the Supreme Court

Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the federal gov’t had powers greater than those in the Constitution & Congress had the power to charter a bank (Article 1,

Section 8)

He also ruled that no state could destroy by taxes what the federal gov’t had created

Nationalism at Home

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

New Hampshire wanted to change the charter (contract) of Dartmouth College from a private school to a state school – “contract clause”

Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the contract was between private parties and the gov’t couldn’t change it

This helped business grow by showing the state couldn’t interferer with business contracts

Gibbons v. Ogden

Ogden bought an exclusive licenses allowing him to operate a steamboat from NY to NJ

Gibbons started a business on the same route and was sued by Ogden

The Supreme Court ruled that the states could not regulate interstate commerce

Nationalism Abroad

President Monroe was concerned with our nation’s foreign policy

He was concerned about the tensions between the US and GB

After signing the Rush-Bagot Agreement which limited ships in the Great Lakes the two countries made the northern boarder of the US 49 degrees N

In a speech to Congress President Monroe established the Monroe Doctrine

1. The US would not get involved in internal European affairs, nor take sides

2. The US recognized the colonies in the Western Hemisphere and would not interfere with them

3. There would be no more colonization in the Western Hemisphere

4. Any action by a European nation to control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be seen as hostile to the US

A Controversial Race

John Quincy Adams won the Presidential election of 1824 but it was a controversial race between John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay & Andrew Jackson

Henry Clay was the former Speaker of the House & KY Senator. He was energetic, charming and a magnificent speaker. He survived two duels and owned a plantation but opposed slavery

Andrew Jackson was a Senator and plantation owner from TN. He was a popular war hero from the War of 1812 and his actions in Florida against NAs

His opponents saw him as poorly educated and ill-tempered

A Controversial Race

Andrew Jackson won the popular vote in 1824 but no candidate received the majority in the Electoral College

In February 1825 the House voted to decide the election

Henry Clay swung KY in favor of Adams and days later Adams made him

Secretary of State

Jackson supporters said Adams & Clay had made a “corrupt bargain” to deny Jackson from winning

The New Parties Face Off

Adams & Clay wanted to use federal power to strengthen the nation’s economy

They supported building roads, canals, bridges, lighthouses, universities & many more public improvements

They also favored protective tariffs to make foreign goods more expensive and encourage the purchase of American-made goods.

Jackson supporters in Congress blocked every move as Jackson prepared for the election of 1828

The New Parties Face Off

Jackson and Adams were both Jeffersonian Republicans but the times had changed and so did the party names and views on the economy

Adams & Clay supporters were now called National Republicans/Whigs they believed they were following the idea of improvement by Jefferson

Jackson followers were called Jacksonian Democrats they believed they were true to the idea of limited government

More than twice the amount of men voted in 1828 than 1824 and Jackson won by a landslide

Party Differences

National Republicans

-Gov’t take a leadership role

-Federal gov’t should support improvements (roads, bridges)

-For national bank

-Middle-class or well established Protestants

Jacksonian Democrats

-Gov’t should remain inactive

-Individual states should support improvements

-Against national bank

-Slave holders, small farmers, working class, non-Protestants