cs116 lecture - Department Of Computer Science

Instructor: Li Ma
Department of Computer Science
Texas Southern University, Houston
August, 2011
Computer Systems
 Computer is a programmable electronic device
 Computer has 4 basic computing functions
 Input
 Processing
 Output
 Storage
 Types of Computers
 Supercomputer: large and powerful
 Mainframe computer: multitasking
 Minicomputer: for medium-sized business
 Microcomputer: desktop computer, notebook computer, tablet
computer, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
by Li Ma
Hardware of Computer Systems
 Motherboard: the primary printed circuit board in a PC
 All the other circuit boards in the computer are connected
to motherboard
RAM chips
Expansion cards
Processor and coprocessor sockets
Memory sockets
Serial and parallel ports
Peripheral controllers
System bus
by Li Ma
Hardware of Computer Systems (cont’)
 The central processing unit (CPU)
 Fetch instructions, follow the instructions, and produce some
Control unit
Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
 Main memory (Random-access memory, RAM)
 It holds the sequences of instructions in the programs that are
running and the data those programs are using
 It is a volatile type of memory, used only for temporary storage
 Data will be lost when power is off
by Li Ma
Hardware of Computer Systems (cont’)
 Secondary storage devices
 Type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time
Disk drives: hard disk, floppy disk, Zip disk, etc.
Optical devices: compact disk (CD)
Flash drives: or thumb drives, directly plug to USB port
 Input devices
 keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, and digital camera
 Output devices
 printer, monitor, and speaker
 secondary storage devices
by Li Ma
Hardware of Computer Systems (cont’)
 Others
 Modem: a communication device
 Video Card: an expansion card, responsible for transforming
graphics and text signals onto the monitor
 Power Supply: responsible for converting the standard power
into an energy form that your computer can use
 System Buses: channels over which information flows between
two or more devices
by Li Ma
Software of Computer Systems
 Software refers to the programs that run on a computer,
there are two categories:
 Operating System (OS): interface between hardware and software
DOS: Disk Operating System
Linux: portable Unix
 Application software: developed by users, for some specific purpose
by Li Ma
 A set of programs that allows users to interact with a
 Once you turn on the computer, it will be loaded
 It has a command-line interface
 File and Directory Structure
 Tree-like
 Nodes: directories and files
 Windows 95 folded DOS into GUI (Graphical User
 Friendly interface
 Easier to operate
by Li Ma
 Windows 95
 First truly combined the operating system and GUI for the
Intel-based computers
 Windows 98
 Logical extension of Windows 95
 More efficient
 Integrates World Wide Web (WWW) capabilities into the
operating system
 Newer version of Windows
 Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, …
by Li Ma
Windows (cont’)
 Icons and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI)
 A software program that allows you to communicate with your
computer by using a pointing device like mouse.
 Application Suites in Windows
 Microsoft visual studio
 Microsoft office
 Internet Explorer, Etc.
by Li Ma
Windows XP
 Windows refers to the operating system that runs the
PC or PC-compatible computers
 It is loaded once you turn on the computer
 Desktop: the basic screen on which Windows and
application run
 Taskbar, Shortcut icons, Start button, Quick-Launch toolbar,
System tray, Mouse pointer
 A window is a rectangle area for some certain
 It can be opened and closed
 It can also be resized, moved, and reduced to a button (to the
task bar)
by Li Ma
Windows XP (cont’)
 File and Directory Structure
 Like file cabinets: files and folders
 My Computer: view your disks, folders and files
 Create a new folder
 Copy, move, rename, and delete files
 Find files and folders
 Compress (or zip) files
by Li Ma
Microsoft Office
 A set of powerful applications (or a suite) that has been
designed to work together
 Share data to combine text, chart & database
information in one document
 Word: word processing
 Excel: electronic spreadsheet manipulation
 PowerPoint: making presentation materials
 Access: manipulating databases
 FrontPage: developing web pages
 Outlook: tracking the schedule, checking email
by Li Ma
Microsoft Office (cont’)
 Web aware
 All applications can be used to access or generate HTML document
 Starting an office application
 Double-click the icon on the desktop (shortcut)
 Invoke the Start, Programs command sequence
 Open an associated file
 Office Assistant
 Very useful to new user
by Li Ma
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