Human Anatomy Anatomical Terms
Definitions • • • Anatomy – Deals with the structure of body parts – their forms and relationships.
Physiology – Deals with the functions of body parts – what they do and how they do it.
Dissection – The careful cutting apart of body parts to see their relationships.
Anatomical Terminology • • • • • Body Positions Regional Names Directional Terms Planes and Sections Body Cavities
Body Positions • • • Anatomical Position – The subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
Prone – body lying face down.
Supine – body lying face up.
Regional Names • • Regions can be identified externally.
Principal regions: – Head (cephalic) – Neck (cervical) – Trunk – Upper limb – Lower limb
Directional Terms • • • Superior (cephalic or cranial) and inferior (caudal).
Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal).
Medial and lateral.
Directional Terms • • • • Intermediate Ipsilateral and contralateral.
Proximal and distal.
Superficial and deep.
Planes and Sections • • • Sagittal Plane – vertical plane – divides body into right and left.
Midsaggital or median plane – equal parts Parasaggital plane – unequal parts
Planes and Sections • • • • Frontal or coronal – divides body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse plane – divides body into superior and inferior parts Oblique plane – angle Section – one flat surface or a 3-D structure
Body Cavities • • Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs.
Two major cavities are the dorsal and ventral body cavities.
Dorsal Body Cavity • • • Located near the dorsal (posterior) surface of the body.
Subdividions – Cranial cavity – Vertebral (spinal) canal Meninges
Ventral Body Cavity • • • • Located near the ventral (anterior) aspect of the body.
Subdivisions – Thoracic cavity – Abdominopelvic cavity Diaphragm Viscera
Dorsal and Ventral Cavities
Thoracic Cavity • Subdivisions – Pericardial Cavity – Pleural cavities – mediastinum
Abdominopelvic cavity • Subdivisions – Abdominal Cavity – Pelvic Cavity
Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes • • • • Serous membrane Pleura Pericardium Peritoneum
Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants • The nine-region designation is used for anatomical studies, whereas the quadrant designation is used to locate the site of pain, tumor, or some other abnormality.
Abdominopelvic Regions • • • • • • • • • • Right Hypochondriac Region Epigastric Region Left Hypochondriac Region Right Lumbar Region Umbilical Region Left Lumbar Region Right Inguinal (Iliac) Region Hypogastric (Pubic Region) Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region Subcostal line, transtubercular line, midclavicular lines
Abdominopelvic Quadrants • • • • • Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Horizontal lines passes through umbilicus