Anatomical Language Anatomical Position • Anatomical position – the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms turned forward. Directional Terms • Superior (cephalic/cranial)– Toward the head; upper part of structure • Inferior (caudal) – Away from the head; lower part of structure Directional Terms • Anterior (ventral) – Nearer to or at the front of the body • Posterior (dorsal) – Nearer to or at the back of the body Directional Terms • Medial – Nearer to the midline or midsagittal plane • Lateral – Farther from the midline or midsagittal plane Directional Terms • Proximal – Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the point of origin • Distal – Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the point of origin Planes and Sections Sagittal Plane – Vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides. Midsagittal plane – equal right and left halves Parasagittal plane – unequal right and left halves Frontal Plane (coronal) – divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions. Transverse Plane – divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions. Planes and Sections Body Cavities Spaces within the body that contain, protect, separate, and support internal organs are called Body Cavities. The two principal cavities are the dorsal and ventral body cavities. Dorsal Cavity The dorsal body cavity is located near the dorsal surface of the body. Cranial cavity: formed by cranial bones and contains brain and its coverings. Vertebral cavity: formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves. Ventral Cavity The ventral body cavity is located on the ventral aspect of the body and contains organs collectively called viscera. Contains two main subdivisions: Thoracic (upper) – contains lungs and heart Abdominopelvic (lower) – contains stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, kidneys, reproductive organs, etc. Thoracic cavity Thoracic – chest cavity; separated from the abdominal cavity by diaphragm • Pleural (right and left) – each contains small amount of fluid and one lung • Pericardial – fluid filled space the surrounds heart • Mediastinum – medial to the lungs; extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the neck to the diaphragm; contains heart, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels. Abdominopelvic Cavity The abdominopelvic cavity is also divided into two regions, although no wall separates them: • Abdominal cavity (upper): contains the stomach, spleen, gall bladder, liver, small intestine, and most of the large intestine • Pelvic cavity (lower): contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal reproductive organs. Abdominal Quadrants The quadrant designation is used to locate the site of pain, a mass, or some other abnormality. Directional Practice • The wrist is ____________ to the hand. • The sternum is ___________ to the spine. • The brain is _______________ to the spinal cord. • The lungs are ______________ to the stomach. • The thumb is _____________ to the fingers. (remember anatomical position) • The navel is ______________ to the sternum. • The nose is ____________ to the mouth. • The heart is ____________ to the sternum. • The arms are ______________ to the chest. • The elbow is ___________ to the wrist. • The skin is ________________ to the skeleton. • The lungs are _____________ to the rib cage.