Use old plasmid maps and gel electrophoresis examples to analyze

• Take your review sheet and notes, and check if you
have all necessary notes collected together.
• If any notes are missing, use the on-line PPT’s, text
book, other students’ notes to get missing notes.
• Look over the review topics and notes and check
which topics are the least familiar and most
troublesome for you.
• Get together with a group that is reviewing THE
• Explain topics to each other and quiz each other
• Answer review questions on ALL REVIEW TOPICS
• State the central dogma of biology
• Define transcription, name its location and its
• Define translation, name its location and its
• Differentiate passing on genetic information in
eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
• List and briefly describe the steps of transcription
• How many nucleotides are needed to determine
an amino acid? On what molecule do you find
the nucleotides that directly determine an amino
• List and describe the steps of mRNA
• In what organisms does mRNA modification
• Define and state the location of translation.
• What is the main purpose of translation?
• List and briefly describe the steps of translation.
• What type of gene mutation would cause the
– Largest change in a new protein?
– The least change in a new protein?
• Where does the termination of transcription occur?
• If the DNA sequence is the following below, what is
the RNA and amino acid sequence that is coded by it?
• Define mutation and differentiate between its two
• State the law of segregation.
• Differentiate between codominance and incomplete
• Name two evidence of evolution and explain how
they provide proof of evolution.
• Cystic fibrosis is carried on the recessive
allele. Normal is dominant. A normal man and a
woman with cystic fibrosis have one CF child and
one normal child. What are the chances that
their next child will have cystic fibrosis?
• In peas, tall is dominant to short. If a pure tall
and a pure short plant are crossed, and the
resulting offspring are crossed, how many of the
F2 will be short if 120 plants are produced?
• In guinea pigs, black is dominant to white. If
two black guinea pigs are crossed and 4 black
and 3 white pigs result, were the parents pure?
• In 4 o'clock flowers, red is dominant to white,
but the heterozygote is pink. What is the
phenotype ratio of crossing red 4 o’clock flowers
and pink 4o’clock flowers?
• If Jennifer is normal (and is not a carrier) but her
husband, James, is colorblind, what are the
chances of
A. their daughter, Jean, being colorblind?
B. Of their son, Joe being colorblind?
• List the three types of natural selection and
provide an example of each.
• Describe how DNA can be used as evidence of
• In a population, 4 % of all individuals show the
recessive trait. What is the allele frequency of the
dominant allele? What is the frequency of the
heterozygous individuals?
• In a population, 560 out of 1000 individuals show
the dominant trait. What is the frequency of the
recessive allele? Dominant allele? What is the
frequency of the homozygous dominant
• In a population of butterflies, the dark coloration
is dominant over the light coloration. What is the
frequency of the recessive allele if 23 out of 67
butterflies are light?
• List 4 mechanisms of evolution and explain how
they change the genetic makeup of the
• Describe how Darwin contributed to the theory
of evolution.
• Give 4 examples of evolution and explain two of
• Use examples to differentiate between
directional and stabilizing selection.
• List the aspects of natural selection in order.
• Differentiate between DNA and RNA.
• List the different types of RNA molecules and
describe their function.
• Name an enzyme that participate in
transcription. Describe its function.
• Describe the structure of a ribosome and its
• Why is colorblindness more common in men
than in women?
• Name an example of a vestigial structure. Why
do vestigial structures provide evidence of
• What are restriction enzymes? How are they
used by scientists?
• What is PCR? What is it used for?
• Name three advantages and two disadvantages of
using biotechnology.
• Describe what gel electrophoresis is and how it
benefits scientists.
• What is DNA sequencing? How is it beneficial for
• What are GMO’s? How can they be useful?
Use old plasmid maps and gel electrophoresis
examples to analyze those.
• Describe the main purpose of cellular respiration
and the organisms that perform it.
• List the steps of cellular respiration and their
• Describe the location, reactants, products and
main purpose of glycolysis.
• Describe the process of fermentation and the
conditions when it takes place.
• Explain how hydrogen ion concentration gradient
is used to form ATP.
• Describe what processes of CR or PS produce the
– CO2
– NAD+
– H2O
– O2
• List the steps and locations of photosynthesis.
• Name the main purpose of photosynthesis and
the organisms that perform it.
• Draw the parts of the leaf and describe how
each part contributes to photosynthesis.
• What is the role of guard cells?
• What are the reactants and products of the light
• Draw the process of the light reaction and
describe its steps.
• Draw the process of the Calvin cycle and
describe its steps.
• State Mendel’s independent assortment and
law of dominance.
• List three factors that would influence the rate
of photosynthesis and describe how these
factors would influence photosynthesis.