Evolution 1 Define “fitness” as it relates to evolution. 2 Explain the difference between gradualism & punctuated equilibrium. 3 Explain heterozygote advantage. Give an example and explain how your example works. 4 Explain how antibiotic resistance can evolve in bacteria and how pesticide resistance can evolve in an insect population. 5 Describe homologous structures, analogous structures, and vestigial organs. Explain their evolutionary significance & give an example of each. 6 Define a population bottleneck and the founder effect. Explain their evolutionary significance & give an example of each. 7 Explain directional selection, disruptive selection, and stabilizing selection. Give an example of each. 8 Explain sexual selection & give two examples. 9 Distinguish between gene flow and genetic drift. 10 Explain how the anatomical record, the molecular record, and the fossil record all support evolution. Give an example. 11 Explain how natural selection works. 12 Explain the difference between Darwinian and Lamarkian (use and disuse – think giraffe) Evolution. 13 Explain how artificial selection supports evolution. Give three examples. 14 List and describe the pre-zygotic barriers that contribute to speciation. 15 List and describe the post-zygotic barriers that contribute to speciation. 16 Define allopatric and sympatric speciation and explain how both occur. 17 Explain how an organism's phenotype is dependent on its genetics and its environment. 18 Explain why genetic variation and mutation are important for natural selection in a changing environment. 19 What conditions must be met for a population to be non-evolving, are these conditions frequently met? (Hardy Weinberg Principles) 20 How do phylogenetic trees and cladograms illustrate relatedness? 21 Define inherited characteristic and acquired characteristic. 22 How do HOX genes support evolution? 23 Discuss what was required of Primitive Earth for the synthesis of organic molecules and the evolution of: life, cells, more complex cells, terrestrial organism. 24 Explain the RNA World hypothesis 25 What are the 3 domains of life? How are they characterized? 26 What evidence of evolution is there at a cellular level? Math 27. In a population of 250 peas, 16% of the peas are homozygous recessive wrinkled and the rest are smooth. What is the frequency of the dominant allele for smooth peas? 28. In a population that is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype is 0.09. a. What is the p and q value for this population? b. What is the frequency of individuals that are homozygous for the dominant trait? c. What is the frequency of individuals that show the dominant trait? 29. A census of birds nesting on a Galapagos Island revealed that 24 of them show a rare recessive condition that affected beak formation. The other 63 birds in this population show no beak defect. If this population is in HW equilibrium, what is the frequency of the dominant allele? Give your answer to the nearest hundredth. 30. In a cat population, the black allele is dominant to white. There are 16% white cats. How many black cat homozygotes & heterozygotes in the population? Assume HW equilibrium.