Cold war Asia Complete - John Bowne High School

Aim: How Did China Become A Communist
Country After the Cold War?
Do Now: Use the chart below to fill in the
blanks on your graphic organizer.
From Imperialism to Republic
For many years, foreign countries controlled China’s trade and economic
Many people, including groups like the Guomintang (or Nationalist Party), led
by Sun Yixian believed that modernization and nationalism could restore Cina’s
In 1911, a group called The Revolutionary Alliance, a forerunner of the
Guomintang, successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty, (the last series of
emperors from a single family that had ruled China since 1644).
After becoming the president of a new Republic of China in
1912, Sun Yixian aimed to establish a modern government by
using “three principles of the people”…
1. Nationalism- an end to foreign control
2. Democracy- restoring people’s rights
3. Peoples livelihood- Economic Security for all Chinese
From Republic to Revolt
•After gaining power, Sun turns over the Presidency to powerful general named
Yuan Shikai who rules like an emperor snd ultimately betrays the ideals of the
revolution. This sparks local revolts.
•After Yuan Shikai’s death (1916), civil war breaks out in China and authority falls
into the hands of warlords who rule territories as large as their armies could
World War I increases tension in China
•China fights on side of victorious allies but suffers huge casualties during WWI.
•After the war, some Chinese leaders felt that the Allies should repay them for their
help by returning control of Chinese territories that had previously been controlled
by Germany. However, under the Treaty of Versailles, the Allied leaders decided to
give these territories to Japan.
•On May 4, 1919, outraged students gathered in Beijing to protest Japanese
control of colonies in China. This began the May Fourth Movement. It’s
supporters aimed to make China stronger through modernization.
China splits in two during WWII
Communist vs. Nationalists
•In 1921, two leaders rise to power and jockey for political control. Jiang Jieshi leads
the nationalist party and Mao Zedong leads the Communist party.
•At first Nationalists and Communist work together to defeat warlords and unite China
but Chiang Kai-shek (aka Jiang Jieshi) sees communist as a threat and he wages
civil war between the nationalist and communist in china.
•This bitter civil war continues to rage when Japan invades China in 1937.
Chiang Kai-shek
Dominates the
Mao Zedong
Dominates the
The Long March (1934-1935)
Chinese communists make a
6000 mile trek from
southeastern to northwestern
China. This relocates the
communist revolutionary base
and sets the stage for
establishes Mao Zedong to
become the undisputed party
World War II in China
During WWII, the Nationalists and Communist temporarily unite to fight the Japanese.
But they continued to jockey for position within China.
After Japan surrenders in WWII, Civil war between Nationalists and Communists
resumes. This renewed civil war lasts from 1946 to 1949.
In 1949, Mao Zedong gains control of the country and proclaims it the peoples
Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek and other Nationalist leaders retreat to the
island of Taiwan.
Reasons for Communist Success:
1. Communist promised to distribute free land to China’s poor and
landless peasant farmers (90% of the population). Most farmers
supported the Communist rebels.
2. The Soviet Union provided money, weapons, and training to the
communist rebels.
3. The Chinese Nationalist government was incompetent, corrupt
and too weak to stop Mao Zedong’s forces.
The existence of two China’s increases tensions
between the Superpowers during the Cold War
The U.S. supports Chiang Kai-shek
and helps him set up a Nationalist
govern-ment called the Republic of
The Soviets support Mao Zedong
and the countries pledge to assist
one another if either is attacked.