The Chinese Revolution

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The Chinese Revolution
A series of political upheavals between 1911-1949 that ended the dynasties and led to
communist rule.
Standard: 3.1.b
Internet Resources
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0005603.html: Story of
Chinese Revolution (Quick 1 Page Summary)
http://www.aasianst.org/EAA/10-3-supplemental.htm: Handouts with primary Resources
from Cultural Revolution
http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/china/modern/long_stu.htm: Focus on Mao Zedong
People
1. Mao Zedong
2. Sun Yet-sen
3. Quing Emperors
4. Red Guard
5. Nationalist Party
Causes
1. Control of China by other countries
2. Unfair treatment of peasants
3. Young people’s desire to modernize China
Immediate Effects
1. End of Dynasties in China
2. Culture of Fear in China caused by Red Guard
3. Failing Economy because the Red Guard put so many workers out of work.
4. Destruction of Schools in pursuit of stamping out any reminder of the past.
Long Lasting Effects on the Modern World
1. Large amount of uneducated workers due to the destruction of education- they play
into many countries’ economies today.
2. Destroyed their art and anything that symbolized the old world- we don’t have it today
3. Current tensions between China and Tibet
Maps
http://unimaps.com/china1911/index.html
http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/chin-rev.htm
Summary
China had been under a Qing (Ching) Emperor since the mid-1600’s when in the
1900’s little parts of China were being taken over by outside countries. The young people
of China at the time were very upset with this and the emperor for not stopping it. This
unrest led to the development of the People’s Nationalist Party, led by Sun Yat-sen. In
1911 the People’s Nationalist Party forced the emperor out and created a republican
government. The People’s Nationalist party was unable to unite China or force out the
various countries that were claiming land there.
When Sun Yat-sen died Chiang Kai-shek took his place and built up the
nationalist army. With his army he reclaimed Chinese land from other countries. Then the
Nationalist Party split forming a Communist party who believed that the peasants should
have a say in the government. Chiang Kai-shek disagreed with this and sided with the
wealthy farmers. He then forced all the communists into a small area in southern China.
The exiled Communist started an exodus to Yan’an in Northwestern China. This 6,000mile trek is known as the Long March, and only 8,000 of the 100,00 communists
survived. During the Long March Nationalists attacked and the Communists found a
leader, Mao Zedong.
Mao and the Communists claimed the Northwest lowering taxes and giving the
peasants more power. As more and more Chinese heard of Mao’s changes they joined the
communists. Eventually a communist army put together by Mao drove Chiang Kai-shek
and the Nationalists out of China and into Taiwan. Mao now started making changes all
over China. Economically he set up 5-year plans that focused on making farming
communes and growing industry. He also appointed fellow communist believers to
important government positions.
Around 1966 Mao decided that not enough people were supporting his
government, so he decided that the country needed a Cultural Revolution. He got college
students and young people involved in destroying the past. The tore down architecture
that was representative of the past. The destroyed art and books from the days of the
emperors. Mao also put together the red guard which questioned people about the
allegiance to the communists and even jailed or executed individuals who they thought
were not good communists. However in 1968 Mao put a stop to the Cultural Revolution
feeling it had gone too far.
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