File - Modern World History

Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule
Chapter 14, Section 3
What We Can Expect
• Early 1900s China
• Foreign countries control much of China
• There are two camps in China:
– The ones who wanted change
– And those that did not
Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty
• A group pushing for change called the
Kuomintang (AKA Nationalist Party)
• Lead by Sun Yixian (yee shyahn)
• 1912 they overthrow the Qing that had ruled
China since 1644
Shaky Start
• Sun Yixian becomes President
– China is now a Republic
• “Three Principles of the People”
– Nationalism – end of foreign control
– People’s Rights – democracy
– People’s Livelihood – economic security for all
• Nationalism is his key goal
Shaky Start
• Sun turns over the Presidency (after 6 weeks) to
General Yuan Shikai
• Shikai rules as a military dictator
– He abandons democracy in China
Revolt breaks out Shikai dies in 1916
No one holds power
Civil war breaks out
Warlords rule areas of China
WWI and More Problems
• 1917 China sides with the Allies thinking they
would return all of China to the Chinese
• Treaty of Versailles:
– China thought German lands would return
– Instead it gave those lands to Japan
May Fourth Movement
When the Treaty hit China = anger
May 4, 1919: 3000 protest breaks out
Mao Zedong is among the protestors
Mao will become China’s greatest revolutionary
“The Great Helmsman”
• Chinese revolutionaries want:
– A strong modern China
– They dislike the west so they move to Communism
and USSR values
Communist Party in China
Groups formed from the educated (U)
Talked about Marx
Thought they should follow Lenin’s lead
1921 the Communist party is formed
Lenin and China
• Sun Yixian and National Party step up a gov in
the south
• All groups now dislike the west (TreoVer)
• Sun looks to ally with USSR
• Soviets come to aid Sun
– Lenin gives help if communist join
Nationalist and Communist Clash
• Sun dies in 1925
• Chiang Kai-shek takes over and fears communism,
and so does his crew
• Kai and communist fight together
– Defeat the warlords
• But Kai turns on them in April 1927
– Many communist leaders are killed
• 1928 China is a Republic, but communism waits
Peasants and Communist
Kai changed his name to Jiang Jieshi
Jiang’s gov became less democratic
They disregard the rural areas
So, rural peasants join the communist
Mao Zedong gathers them and starts his
• The “grassroots” revolution
Civil War
1930 Nationalist and Communist fight
Mao gains peasant support in countryside
Mao’s Red Army
Used guerrilla warfare tactics
Civil War
• The Long March 1933 – 700,000 Nationalist
surrounded the communist stronghold
• The communist could not win and fled
• Marched 6,000 miles
• The whole time the Nationalist followed
• Lasted more then a year
• 100,000 – 10,000 to 30,000 made it to safety
Japan’s Invasion
• 1937 as China fights China, Japan invades
• This attack begins WWII for China and Japan
(some contest the whole war)
• Let’s just say Japan really messes up China
– Killing, raping, destroying, all the evil things
• China is in survival mode