Unit: Alkenes and Alkene reactions
Lesson Plan Title: Markovnikov Addition and Carbocation rearrangement
Concept / Topic o Teach: Addition of acid across a double bond. Carbocation formation and
Standards Addressed:
General Goal(s): To learn about Markovnikov addition, what it means, and carbocations.
Specific Objectives: To learn how to add HX across a double-bond, to learn why H adds to the
less substituted Carbon and to introduce the possibility of Carbocation rearrangement to a more
stable state.
Required Materials: Computer, projector, Smart board.
Anticipatory Set (Lead-In): How to name alkenes, where alkenes are reactive, what a
carbocation is.
Step-By-Step Procedures:
1) Start with a simple alkene.
2) Show how HX is added across the double bond. Make sure to note that it can add any
way in terms of chirality and on either side of a simple alkene.
3) Start with an alkene but with one side of the double bond with a mono-substituted
carbon and one with a bi-substituted carbon
4) Move to an alkene with a tertiary component away from the double bond. Show that
the chlorine attaches to the most substituted carbon.
5) Describe carbocation creation and rearrangement and stability.
6) Use the carbocation question as a quick quiz. If a majority of students choose the
wrong answer, use a simple problem and work way up to tougher problem. If most
students choose the right answer, give an easy and a hard problem, and have them
work it out on their own (Then help students who chose the wrong answers).
7) Make up problems
8) Easy Example: Is this the most stable carbocation?
9) Difficult Example: Where will the most stable carbocation form?
Plan For Independent Practice: Give three different alkenes. Ask for the products of alkene +
HX. Give a few carbocations and ask for them to be listed from most to least stable.
Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set): Show them the addition of H2O across a double bond. Still
Markovnikov addition.
Assessment Based On Objectives: Quiz the next day
Adaptations (For Students With Learning Disabilities): Put the powerpoints, complete with
animations, online. Put all notes pertaining to the animations online as well. Lesson on
smartboard, as well as all voice, will be recorded on the smartboard and put online.
Extensions (For Gifted Students):
Possible Connections To Other Subjects: