Chapter 2: Learning There are Several Types of Learning: 1.Classical Conditioning – Accidently discovered by Ivan Pavlov and his famous experiment with dogs A learning procedure where an old response becomes attached to a new stimulus Example: old response - dog’s salivation (when see/ smell food) neutral stimulus – the tone of the bell result = dogs salivate when hear tone (w/ no food presented), a learned response pairing of these responses = conditioning Unconditioned stimulus: An event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training (presence of food) Unconditioned response A reaction that occurs naturally and automatically when the unconditioned stimulus is presented (salivate) Conditioned Stimulus a once-neutral stimulus (tone of bell) that has come to elicit a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Conditioned Response a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (salivating with bell & no food present) *With each pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the learned response, or CR, is strengthened* UCS – food UCR – salivate PAIR UCS w/ CS several times CS – Tone of bell, a neutral stimulus CR – salivation, w no food present Lets try some together! Find a partner to work with 1. UCSUCRCSCR4. UCSUCRCSCR5. UCSUCRCS- CR10. UCSUCRCSCR- Related Classical Conditioning Terms: Generalization: Responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli, think of little Albert & his fear of all white fuzzy things Discrimination: The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli, example being afraid of only white fuzzy items not all fuzzy items Extinction: The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the UCS (unconditioned stimulus) Think about Baby Albert: if Watson would have removed the fear of white fuzzy things by showing baby fuzzy things repeatedly with no loud scary noise, baby’s fear would have decreased and eventually become extinct Acquisition - the first stages of learning when a response is established the period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the conditioned response. Spontaneous Recovery – the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period Spontaneous recovery demonstrates that extinction is not the same thing as unlearning. While the response might disappear, that does not meant that it has been forgotten or eliminated. Taste Aversionslinking your distaste for particular items to a period of illness, queasiness or nausea The previously neutral stimulus (the food) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (an illness), which leads to an unconditioned response (feeling sick). After this one-time pairing, the previously neutral stimulus (the food) is now a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response (avoiding the food). In the case of a conditioned taste aversion, the time lapse often amounts to several hours, instead of a few seconds as seen in traditional classical conditioning scenarios 2.Operant Conditioning: A form of learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in the likelihood that similar actions will occur again * the study of how behavior is affected by its consequences B.F. Skinner, skinner box Reinforcement: Stimulus or event that affects the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Ex) social approval, money, treats Immediately following a particular response with a reward to strengthen that response Reinforcement is what set Operant conditioning apart from Classical Conditioning Training Procedures: 1. Positive Reinforcement (rewards)Increase frequency of bx Big Bang Video Clip 2. Negative Reinforcementremoval (subtraction of) of unpleasant stimulus, an aversive/punishment, increases frequency of behavior Examples of Negative Reinforcement Learn more by looking at the following examples: Before heading out for a day at the beach, you slather on sunscreen in order to avoid getting sunburned. You decide to clean up your mess in the kitchen in order to avoid getting in a fight with your roommate. On Monday morning, you leave the house early in order to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for class. Can you identify the negative reinforcer in each of these examples? Sunburn, a fight with your roommate and being late for work are all negative outcomes that were avoided by performing a specific behavior. By eliminating these undesirable outcomes, the preventative behaviors become more likely to occur again in the future. 3. Punishment aversive/ punishment follows bx, used to decrease undesirable behavior 4. Omission Training – removal of a positive reinforcement Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers: Secondary Reinforcement refers to a situation in which a stimulus reinforces a behavior after it has been associated with a primary reinforcer, like money The Primary Reinforcers occur naturally and do not need to be learned. Examples of primary reinforcers include things that satisfy basic survival needs such as water, food, sleep, air Money is one example of secondary reinforcement. Money can be used to reinforce behaviors because it can be used to acquire primary reinforcers such as food, clothing, shelter and other such things. Aversion ConditioningInfluencing behavior using unpleasant consequences Chapter 2 Continued: Operant Learning Timing and frequency of reinforcement are important: Schedule of Reinforcements: 1.Continuous Schedule: reward every desired behavior, learning happens quick but so does extinction 2.Partial Schedule (Intermittent): responses are more stable and last longer/ 4 Types of Partial Schedule Reinforcements: RATIO = NUMBER INTERVALS = TIME Fixed-ratio schedule: A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained Ex: Rewarding every 4th response Variable-ratio schedule: A schedule of reinforcement in which a different number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained each time EX: Slot machines, set to pay off after a varying number of attempts Fixed-interval schedule: A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement The time interval- whether it is seconds, minutes, hours or days- is always the same Ex. Teacher gives a quiz, only study night before not every night Variable-interval schedule: A schedule of reinforcement in which changing amount of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement each time Ex: Trying to reach a friend and goes straight to voicemail. The number of times you continue to try and call will determine roughly how often you try the phone again…and again Now let’s try to identify the 4 types of reinforcement schedules in real life scenarios, find a partner!