Earth Science Study Guide – Chapter 3

Earth Science Study Guide – Chapter 3
Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions
Words to Know
 Atoms
 Elements
 Compounds
 Ions
 Isotopes
 Protons
Chemical names
Chemical symbols
Mass number
Atomic mass unit (amu)
You will need to know how to find the charge and mass number of atoms.
Know what information is contained in a square of the periodic table.
Mineral Identification
Words to Know
 Cleavage
 Submetallic
 Fracture
 Non-metallic
 Streak
 Hardness
 Fluorescence
 Pegmatite
 Magnetism
 reclamation
 Luster
 Ore
 Metallic
 pluton
Know the four characteristics of minerals.
Know the order of minerals in Moh’s Scale of Hardness
There will be a few questions about different minerals. Example – Which mineral is used in
Mineral Formation
Know about different types of mining and several ways in which minerals can form.
Practice Essays
1. You are given a mineral to identify. Describe what tests you would use to identify
the mineral and what information each test will give you.
2. An atom has 19 protons and 14 electrons. Write down all the information you know
about the atom. Include the terms mass number, ion, positive or negative, and
neutrons in your essay.
3. Describe how the white crust around your bathroom sink forms. What is the crust
and how could you get rid of it?
4. Describe (and illustrate) the difference between the following: compound, molecule ,
atom and element.
5. Describe the difference between a pluton and a pegmatite.