Earth Science Study Guide – Chapter 3 Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions Words to Know Atoms Elements Compounds Ions Isotopes Protons Neutrons Electrons Chemical names Chemical symbols Mass number Atomic mass unit (amu) You will need to know how to find the charge and mass number of atoms. Know what information is contained in a square of the periodic table. Mineral Identification Words to Know Cleavage Submetallic Fracture Non-metallic Streak Hardness Fluorescence Pegmatite Magnetism reclamation Luster Ore Metallic pluton Know the four characteristics of minerals. Know the order of minerals in Moh’s Scale of Hardness There will be a few questions about different minerals. Example – Which mineral is used in pencils? Mineral Formation Know about different types of mining and several ways in which minerals can form. Practice Essays 1. You are given a mineral to identify. Describe what tests you would use to identify the mineral and what information each test will give you. 2. An atom has 19 protons and 14 electrons. Write down all the information you know about the atom. Include the terms mass number, ion, positive or negative, and neutrons in your essay. 3. Describe how the white crust around your bathroom sink forms. What is the crust and how could you get rid of it? 4. Describe (and illustrate) the difference between the following: compound, molecule , atom and element. 5. Describe the difference between a pluton and a pegmatite.