Study Guide for Honors Biology test: Chapters 6 & 7 This test will consist of two sections. There will be multiple choice, and some short answer questions about an experiment to interpret. Chapter 6- Cellular respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food You should be able to: Define the following terms—autotroph, heterotroph, producer, consumer, aerobic, anaerobic, fermentation, Krebs (citric acid) cycle. In general terms describe an oxidation-reduction reaction (redox). In other words, what does it mean to be “reduced” or “oxidized”? Describe the ATP molecule and the process by which it stores and releases energy. Describe cycling between photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration, recognizing they are opposite in products and reactants, but are chemically completely separate processes from each other. Write the overall equation for the process of cellular respiration. Describe glycolysis, including where it occurs, what “goes in” and what is produced. Describe the citric acid cycle, including where it occurs, what “goes in” and what is produced. Describe the electron transport chain, including where it occurs, what “goes in” and what is produced. Compare the amount of ATP made from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. Identify the final electron acceptor for aerobic respiration. Relate the lack of oxygen to the need for alternate chemical pathways to harvest food energy. Compare the amount of ATP made from the whole cycle of aerobic respiration vs. fermentation. Compare and contrast alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Compare the anatomy and physiology of marathoners vs. sprinters. Chapter 7-Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food You should be able to: Define the following terms—pigment, chlorophyll, photosystem, stroma, grana, thylakoids. Identify the wavelengths (colors) of light that are most absorbed (used for energy) by chlorophyll and which are reflected. List the three main pigments in green plants and identify their roles. Describe the process of photosynthesis, including what “goes in” (starting materials), what powers the reactions and what the plant releases from this process. Determine which of the two products produced/released at the end of photosynthesis is a “waste product” and which is the product actually needed by the cell. Compare the adaptations of C4 and CAM plants to the typical C3 plants. What climate conditions are those two plant types adapted to and how do they succeed in those climates where C3 plants would die off? Compare the effects of various light levels and CO2 levels on photosynthesis.