Early Modern Times: The Renaissance and Reformation: 1300-1600 Key Facts: • The Renaissance was a period of cultural rebirth in the arts, literature, and learning. • Reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin challenged Church corruption and established the Protestant churches. • During the Scientific Revolution, a new approach to science changed the way Europeans viewed the world. • During this time, the Protestant Reformation and the Scientific Revolution changed European civilization. • The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to northern Europe. • During the Italian Renaissance an intellectual movement took place - known as Humanism. • Humanism based on study of classical Greek and Roman cultures, and focused on worldly subjects. Not religious issues that medieval thinkers studied. • Humanists believed education should help people think in new ways. • Humanism brought a new attitude toward culture, learning and the world. • Key advance in technology during Renaissance was the printing press. • Printing spread Renaissance ideas throughout Europe. Books became more available, people learned to read and write and therefore, knowledge and ideas spread. • The Bible, and books about medicine, law, astrology, mining, geography were printed. • Protestant Reformation occurred during Renaissance. • Christians grew impatient with corruption and selling of indulgences of clergy and the Church. • In 1517, German monk and professor of theology named Martin Luther protested Church abuses. He believed that the Bible, not the Church, was the sole source of religious truth. He and other reformers, such as John Calvin, broke away from the church completely. They founded modern Protestant churches. • Martin Luther wrote a list of complaints – the Ninety-Five Theses, and nailed it to the door of the Wittenberg church in Germany. • As Protestant Reformation grew, Catholic Church began to reform itself – led to widespread intolerance and persecution on both sides. • Conflicts between Catholic and Protestant nations would shape European politics for centuries. (ex. Persecution, murders, inquisitions) • In 1500’s, Scientific Revolution – new way to think about the physical universe. • Church opposed scientific findings, approach of observation/experimentation, mathematical calculations and scientific laws: led to the scientific method. • During Scientific Revolution, discovered many scientific laws for the first time. o Copernicus – heliocentric (Sun-centered model of universe) o Newton–math to show gravity keeps planets in their orbits around the sun. o Discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, medicine. All scientific discoveries opened the way for further advances and changed the way Europeans viewed the world.