Early Modern Times: The Renaissance and Reformation: 1300

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Early Modern Times: The Renaissance and Reformation:
1300-1600
Key Facts:
•
The Renaissance was a period of cultural rebirth in the arts, literature, and
learning.
•
Reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin challenged Church corruption and
established the Protestant churches.
•
During the Scientific Revolution, a new approach to science changed the way
Europeans viewed the world.
•
During this time, the Protestant Reformation and the Scientific Revolution
changed European civilization.
•
The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to northern Europe.
•
During the Italian Renaissance an intellectual movement took place - known as
Humanism.
•
Humanism based on study of classical Greek and Roman cultures, and focused on
worldly subjects. Not religious issues that medieval thinkers studied.
•
Humanists believed education should help people think in new ways.
•
Humanism brought a new attitude toward culture, learning and the world.
•
Key advance in technology during Renaissance was the printing press.
•
Printing spread Renaissance ideas throughout Europe. Books became more
available, people learned to read and write and therefore, knowledge and ideas
spread.
•
The Bible, and books about medicine, law, astrology, mining, geography were
printed.
•
Protestant Reformation occurred during Renaissance.
•
Christians grew impatient with corruption and selling of indulgences of clergy
and the Church.
•
In 1517, German monk and professor of theology named Martin Luther protested
Church abuses. He believed that the Bible, not the Church, was the sole source of
religious truth. He and other reformers, such as John Calvin, broke away from the
church completely. They founded modern Protestant churches.
•
Martin Luther wrote a list of complaints – the Ninety-Five Theses, and nailed it to
the door of the Wittenberg church in Germany.
•
As Protestant Reformation grew, Catholic Church began to reform itself – led to
widespread intolerance and persecution on both sides.
•
Conflicts between Catholic and Protestant nations would shape European politics
for centuries. (ex. Persecution, murders, inquisitions)
•
In 1500’s, Scientific Revolution – new way to think about the physical universe.
•
Church opposed scientific findings, approach of observation/experimentation,
mathematical calculations and scientific laws: led to the scientific method.
•
During Scientific Revolution, discovered many scientific laws for the first time.
o Copernicus – heliocentric (Sun-centered model of universe)
o Newton–math to show gravity keeps planets in their orbits around the sun.
o Discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, medicine.
All scientific discoveries opened the way for further advances and
changed the way Europeans viewed the world.