Chapter 17 The Transformation of the West

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Chapter 17
The Transformation of
the West
Objectives
Trace social, political, economic and cultural changes associated with the
renaissance, reformation, the rise of nation-states and absolutism
Examine European exploration and analyze the forces that caused and
allowed the acquisition of colonial possessions and trading privileges in
Africa, the Americas and Asia
Cite the effects of European expansion on Africans, Asians, Europeans and
the pre-Columbian Americans
Compare the influence of religion, social structure and colonial export
economies on north and south American societies
Evaluate the effects of colonialism on Africa, the Americas, Asia and
Europe
Summary
• Big changes in western Europe
• Core areas of Western civ. changed
dramatically during this period (1450-1750)
• The west became unusually commercially
active
• They also developed a strong manufacturing
sector
• Governments increased their power
Summary
• In intellectual life, science became the
centerpiece for the first time in the history of any
society
• Ideas of family and personality also changed
• The changes resulted from overseas expansion
and growing commercial dominance
• Internal changes such as the renaissance and
enlightenment were marked by considerable
internal conflict
• The focal point centered on the state, culture and
commerce with support from tech.
Compare the ways which the renaissance,
reformation and enlightenment had an effect on
the political organization in Europe.
• All movements invoked change in popular
mentality that affected political organization
Northern Renaissance
• The Northern renaissance attacked the authority
of the church
• Allowed the state to control the church
• Increased interest in pomp (dignified or
magnificent display) and ceremony
• Produced greater interest in military conquest
and exploration
Reformation
• Concept of shared authority; thus the
Protestant regions were less likely to develop
a absolute monarchies and tended to form
parliamentary governments
• The success of the reformation allowed
protestant rulers to seize control of
possessions of the catholic church
Enlightenment
• Implied the ability of the state to intervene to benefit
all citizens
• It contributed to the concept of progress and
improvement
Politics
• Led to enlightened despotism (absolute power or
authority)
• Despotism was particularly in eastern Europe, where
Prussia and Austria-Hungary sponsored state reforms
• It also coincided with the development of more
centralized governments with more all-encompassing
powers
Trace the economic changes between 1450 and
1750 and how those changes altered the social
organization of western Europe
• Commercialization and inflation caused significant
• Individuals who invested gained at the expense of others who simply
possessed property
• As a result the aristocracy was challenged
• At the lower end of the social scale the proletariat emerged
• The proletariat had income and wealth that was separate from possession
of real property
• They were associated with the rise of domestic manufacturing and
urbanization
• The process of these new changes created new social classes and social
tension
• There was a wave of popular protest against poverty up to 1650
• Associated with the unrest was a hysteria over witchcraft
• This hysteria demonstrated a distrust of the poor as a potentially
revolutionary group