1C – methane, if part of bigger chain is called methyl; 2C – ethane; 3C – propane; 4C – butane; 5C pentane; 6C – hexane; 7C – heptane; 8C – octane; Double bond – ene; Triple bond – yne
Functional groups:
a. Alcohol:
i. OH anywhere on the chain
b. Keytone:
i. O in the middle
c. Aldehyde:
i. O in the end
d. Carboxylic acid – oic acid:
i. O and OH in the end
Aromatics – contained benzene rings, the molecule is flat because of the sp2:
Benzene – OH – phenol
Benzene – NH2 – Aniline
Benzene – CHO2 – benzoic acid
H bonds – needs H and free e- and the mol needs to be polar
Boiling Point (BP):
a. Higher molar mass higher BP
b. H bonds – high BP
c. Saturated – high BP
7. Solubility and polarity
a. Acids – H donor, reacts with the H2O
b. Bases – OH donors, dissolve in the H2O. We have bases when the elements are bonded
ionicly(NaOH), not covalently(COH4)
c. When two elements have different electronegativities the bond between is polar towards the
more electronegative element
d. When the molecule is not symmetric (has free e- only in one of its ends) it is polar
8. Hybrid Orbitals:
a. When the orbitals of two atoms mix it is called that they are hybridized and the formed bond
is called sigma(σ)
b. When the orbitals are not mixed they are called unhybridized and the bond is pi(π)
c. С колкото елемента е свързан един С атом с 1 по-малко е орбитала (sp, sp2, sp3)
d. Sp and sp2 – flat mols
e. Sp3 – 3D mols
9. Vitamin D
a. Steroid hermone
b. Required by the body in small amounts
c. 2 forms:
i. Vitamin D2
ii. Vitamin D3
d. Contained in fish products, vegetable oil
e. Plants and vegetables are poor
Can protects from osteoporoza
10. Testosterone
a. The male hormone, produced in the testicles (male), while women produce it in their ovaries.
b. Women, which want to change their sex are injected with it.
c. 40-60 mg in the women
d. 300-1000 – Men
e. Teen boys can jump to 2000 mg
11. Morphine
a. Colorless
b. Alkaloid of the opium
c. Affects the brain
d. It illegal
e. Very dangerous
Causes addiction
g. Produced in India. Turkey – the biggest producer.
h. Reacts both as acid and base
Overdose causes death