8th Grade NUTRIENT Study Guide

8th Grade NUTRIENT Study Guide
 Carbohydrates (1 gram = 4 calories): are the starches and sugars that
provide the body with most of its energy and fiber for digestion. There are 2
kinds of carbohydrates-simple and complex.
o Simple: Fruit, Sugar, Milk
o Complex: Breads, Cereal, Potatoes
 Proteins (1 gram = 4 calories): are needed to build, repair, and maintain
body cells and tissues particularly muscle. Made up of chains of the body’s
building blocks (amino acids)
 Fats (1 gram = 9 calories): Source of energy and regulate body function.
Insulate, cushion organs, carry vitamins and promote healthy skin and
o Saturated fats: are fats found in meats and dairy products. Solid at
room temperature—not good.
o Unsaturated fats: (Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated) are found
mainly in vegetable oils, such as olive, corn and canola oil and it
remains a liquid, also in nuts and some oily fish (tuna, sardines &
 Vitamins: are substances needed in small quantities that help regulate body
functions. There are two kinds: water soluble (B & C) and fat soluble.
 Minerals: are elements needed in small quantities for sturdy bones and
teeth, healthy blood, and regulations of daily elimination. (i.e Calcium, Iron)
 Water: is the most common nutrient, making up about 60% of the body.
Carries nutrients, helps digestion, removes waste, and lubricates joints and
stops overheating.
Nutritional Functions of Carbohydrates
 The body’s most important source of energy—calories
 Allow proteins to be used for building and repairing the body cells
Nutritional Functions of Proteins
 Used mainly for building and maintaining all body tissues
 Enzyme, hormone, and antibody proteins help regulate body processes
 Used as an energy source to supplement carbohydrates and fats
Nutritional Functions of Fat
 An important source of calories
 Carries fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E & K) into your blood
 Provides essential fatty acids
 Adds flavor to food
 Helps to satisfy hunger due to slower digestion
 Serves as a form of stored energy
 Protects vital organs from injury
 Insulates body from heat and cold
Nutritional Functions of Vitamins
 Assist in the regulation of many body processes
 Work with enzymes by triggering chemical reactions which allow the
digestion, absorption, metabolism, and use of other nutrients
 Speed up reactions that produce energy in body cells
Nutritional Functions of Water
 Carries nutrients to the cell
 Transports wastes from the cell
 Lubricates the joints and mucous membranes
 Enables the body to swallow and digest foods
 Enables the body to eliminate waste
 Cools the body down through the process of perspiration
 Prevents the buildup of the internal heat