How Nutrients Become You

advertisement
How Nutrients Become You

Six Nutrient Groups
–
–
–
–
–
–
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Chemistry of Nutrition



Elements-simplest substances
Matter-takes up space; is measurable
Molecule
smallest amount of substance with characteristics
of the substance
– made of two or more atoms bonded together
COMPOUND is formed when atoms of different
elements are bonded together
–
Functions of Nutrients

Build and repair body tissues
–

Regulate body processes
–

Growth spurts, injuries, illness
Circulation, digestion, absorption, metabolism
Provide energy
–
–
Fuel
Carbs and fats
Energy Value of Food






Kilocalorie-amount of heat required to raise
one kilogram of water one degree Celsius
Kilocalorie=Calories
Fats=9 calories/gm
Carbohydrates=4 calories/gm
Protein=4 calories/gm
Alcohol=7 calories/gm (no nutrient value!)
The Process of Digestion
Body breaks down food into simpler
substances
 Mechanical Digestion-chewing…
 Chemical Digestion
– Enzymes (protein) cause chemical
reactions
 GI Tract-25-30’ (mouth to anus)

–
5-14 hours from mouth to sm. intestine
Components of GI tract


Mouth-mastication, saliva
Esophagus (10 “)
–
–

parallels trachea (epiglottis)
Peristalsis-moves food through
Stomach (3 hours-fats take longest)
–
–
–
Gastric juices: HCl, enzymes, mucous
Chyme
Pepsin begins protein breakdown
GI con’d

Small Intestine (95% digestion occurs here)
–
–
–
–

20’ long when stretched…1” diameter
Duodenum(12”)
Jejunum (4 ‘)
Ileum (5 ‘)
Large Intestine (colon)
–
–
–
–
Little digestion
Water reabsorption
Bacteria work on fiber
Feces pass through rectum and anus
Absorption of Nutrients


Passage of nutrients from digestive to
circulatory and lymphatic systems
Water soluble nutrients
–

Amino acids, monosaccharides, minerals, vitamin
C, B vitamins
Fat soluble nutrients
–
Vitamins A, D, E, K, fatty acids, glycerol,
monoglycerides
Metabolism



Chemical changes producing energy
Energy stored in muscles-adenosine
triphosphate (ATP)
Waste products from cell metabolism
discarded through
–
–
–
Kidneys
Lungs
Skin
Factors Affecting Digestion
 Eating
habits
 Emotions
 Food allergies
 Physical exercise
Digestive Disorders
Diarrhea
 Constipation
 Indigestion
 Heartburn (GERD)
 Ulcer
 Gallstones
 Diverticulosis

Download
Related flashcards

Diseases of liver

38 cards

Teeth

29 cards

Feces

26 cards

Oral communication

15 cards

Pancreatic cancer

11 cards

Create Flashcards