Biology Reading Notes Outline Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics Name:______________________________ Period: _________ Date: ____________ Read Chapter 11. As you do so, take notes on the following topics on a separate piece of notebook paper. You will have to study these for tests, so do not just “answer” the topic questions below- write out the info in an outline format that contains the detail needed to understand what the topic is and what it means. Leave space between each topic so you can add to the notes during in-class lectures. Ch. 11.1- The Work of Gregor Mendel 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define genetics. Describe Gregor Mendel and his background. Explain in detail why Mendel used garden peas for his experiments. Define fertilization. How are pea plants fertilized? Describe the process that Mendel used to “cross-pollinate” pea plants. a. Why did Mendel use this procedure? b. What is a hybrid? 6. What are the symbols used for the parental and first filial generations (respectively)? 7. As a result of his experiments, what was Mendel’s first conclusion? a. What are genes? How are alleles different from genes? 8. What was Mendel’s second conclusion and what does it mean? 9. What is a second filial generation and what symbol is used to represent it? 10. Explain segregation. (see Figure 11-5 for additional information) 11. What are gametes? 12. What is the relationship between segregation, gametes, and alleles? EXPLAIN Ch. 11.2- Applying Mendel’s Principles 1. What is probability? a. What is the probability of flipping a coin four times in a row and getting tails every time? 2. Review Figure 11-7. If you crossed a TT plant with a Tt plant, would the offspring be tall or short? 3. Explain what it means to be: a) homozygous for a gene; b) heterozygous for a gene 4. How can probability be used to predict genetic outcomes? 5. Differentiate between phenotype and genotype. 6. How can a Punnett Square be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses? a. Be able to make predictions for an F₁ generation. 7. Describe a two-factor, or “dihybrid”, cross. a. Be able to successfully complete a dihybrid cross using a Punnett square 8. What is the principle of independent assortment? 9. Summarize Mendel’s principles of heredity (4): Ch. 11.3- Other Patterns of Inheritance 1. What are some exceptions to Mendel’s principles? 2. What is incomplete dominance? 3. What is codominance? a. Describe an example of codominance in human genes 4. Describe what it means for genes to have multiple alleles. a. What is an example of a human gene with multiple alleles? 5. Describe polygenic traits. What is an example in humans? 6. How does the environment play a role in how genes determine traits? a. Describe the western white butterfly example in detail. Ch. 11.4- Meiosis 1. Describe the relationship between genes and chromosomes. 2. Describe homologous chromosomes. 3. Explain what a diploid cell is. a. What symbol is used to represent chromosomes in a diploid cell? b. What does N stand for? 4. What are haploid cells? 5. What is meiosis? 6. What are the two divisions of Meiosis called? 7. Summarize the following phases of Meiosis I: a. Prophase I i. What is a tetrad? ii. What is the effect of crossing over? b. Metaphase I and Anaphase I c. Telophase I and Cytokinesis d. What is the end product of Meiosis I? BE SPECIFIC 8. Summarize the following phases of Meiosis II: a. Prophase II b. Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, and Cytokinesis 9. What is the end product of Meiosis II? BE SPECIFIC a. How many gametes result? b. What types of cells are they? c. What are they called in males? Females? 10. What is a zygote? a. After fertilization, what happens to the zygote? 11. Compare mitosis and meiosis: a. Discuss replication and segregation of chromosomes b. Change in chromosome number c. Number of cell divisions 12. What does it mean for genes to be “linked”? a. How are alleles of different genes inherited if they are on the same chromosome? 13. How does distance between genes on a chromosome affect inheritance? a. Explain how frequency of crossing-over is used in gene mapping.