Overhead 2: Australopithecus

Early Human Notes 2015
Overhead A
Primary Source: An artifact, object or document from a specific event/time period. An
eyewitness account.
Artifacts, Documents, Autobiographies, Maps, Diaries, artwork/Sculptures
Secondary Source: Occurs after the event. Not an eyewitness account
Textbook, Reproduction of artwork, biographies, textbook
The following examples are in chronological order
1. 64BC, 25 BC, 78AD, 234 AD
2. 234 BCE, 57 BCE, 27 CE, 101 CE
3. 102 BCE, 77 BC, 23 CE, 234 AD
Overhead 2: Australopithecus
Lived around 5 million to 1 million years ago
Discovery of footprints in volcanic ash pointed out they walked upright
used sticks/bones as tools
Could not hunt, no fire, could not make tools
(example of an Australopithecus)
Discovered by Don Johanson
Over 3 million years old, walked on 2 feet
Shorter than a five year old (probably was 25 when died)
Can tell they walked upright based on shape/size of bones and footprints in
volcanic ash
Why did Apes Stand Up?
1. Climate changes (got colder)
2. Spot dangerous animals
3. Forests disappeared- had to search for food
Overhead 4: Homo Habilis “Skilled Man”
1. 2.5- 1.5 million years ago, lived beside the Australopithecus
2. Made own tools (2.5 million years ago) examples: flakes, choppers
Flakes- thin stone for cutting (usually cut meat)
Choppers- large stone for smashing hard objects
Digging Stick- Wooden tool, dig up roots\
3. Ate meat, but did not hunt
4. New diet- made brain bigger- more energy, traveled
Overhead 5:
Homo Erectus
“Upright Man”
1. From Africa, 1st group to leave Africa
2. 1.5 million years ago – 100,000 years ago
3. Used Fire
4. Could hunt
5. Hunter-gatherers Hunted and gathered plants
6. Hand Ax (Complex tool): Butcher animals, cut wood, dig roots
7. Made tools with multiple purposes * marked dawn of technology*
Overhead 6
Neanderthals (1856, Neander Valley in Germany
230,000-30,000 years ago (Europe)
Thought to be brutish, actually has arthritis (known by fossils/bones)
Adapted to cold environment
Groups of 20-50 people (stayed in same place for awhile)
Strong sense of Community (Cared for one another)
Example- People with arthritis struggle to get food (would be taken care of)
6. Shanidar Cave- Evidence of burial ceremonies- We know since we found
ecofacts (flowers) next to buried bodies
Overhead 7: Homo Sapiens “Wise man”
Before 130,000 years ago
Modern Humans
Lived same time as Neanderthals
Sewed own clothes
Homo Sapiens’ Tools
1. Made for specific purposes
2. “Spear Points”- to hunt big animals
3. “Thin Scrapers”- to clean hides
4. “Piercing Tools”- to poke holes in hides to make clothes
5. Made tools to make other tools
Overhead 8
Cro-Magnons (30,000 years ago)
1. Tools- nets (fishing), spear throwers, bows and arrows
2. Advanced culture
a. Carved designs in tools
b. Sculptures
c. Paintings on Cave walls
d. Las Caux, France (discovery of cave paintings)
e. Hunting rituals, magic rituals (discovery through paintings)
Overhead 9
Ice Age (2.5 million- 12,000 years ago)
Glaciers- a slow moving, huge mass of ice
Glaciers would advance and retreat across the surface of Earth
Warm and Intense Cold Periods
Hard to adapt
a. Homo Erectus- made fire
b. Homo Sapiens- Sewed clothes from animals
5. Water Frozen- Meant it opened land bridges- which meant they could all spread
out against different continents
Example: Bering Strait- Connected Asia and the America’s
Overhead 11:
Settling Down of Early Humans
1. What was life like for Early Humans?
 Hard as they always had to search for food’
2. What allowed Early Humans to settle down?
A. Farming- growing crops
B. Herding- Taming animals
3. What does this mean?
People now CONTROL their food supply and can SETTLE DOWN in one place