What to Review for Biology Exam, Second Semester: Know these terms in order of size: chromosome, nucleus, cell, DNA, nucleotide Know about protein synthesis, translation, transcription, RNAs, Amino Acids, where they take place in the cell Know the different types of mutations: Frameshift, insertion, deletion, substitution and the possible results Chargaff’s Law (What pairs with what) There is a diagram of organisms for four Eras, you will be asked about interpreting the diagram. There will be a question dealing with C14 dating What was the source of the original atmosphere? What do scientists think happened that caused many dinosaurs to become extinct? Contrast biogenesis and spontaneous generation Know the history of Oxygen in the atmosphere—How was it able to eventually accumulate in the atmosphere How did cynobacteria affect the early earth’s atmosphere? Know the endosymbiont theory (mitochondria and chloroplast importance); what did phagocytosis have to do with it What does relative dating depend on? Could C14 be used to date the earth’s age of 4.6 billion years, if no, why? What role did clay play in helping complex molecules evolve? Why do insecticides only work on a given population for a certain time? Know about the three selections (stabilizing, disruptive, directional) Know camouflage, mimcry, homologous structures, analogous structures. How does natural selection relate to evolution? How do fossils demonstrate evidence of evolution? Know figure 15.6. Know the Hardy-Weinberg principle (genetic equilibrium) Know biochemical evidence of evolution. Know how to correctly write a scientific name (binomial nomenclature) Know the 8 taxa in order. What are the three domains? On a cladogram-which is the outgroup? What assumption is made when constructing one? What are in the domain Archaea? Go over nitrogen fixation. Know the lytic cycle and how is the lysogenic cycle different. Why do they use bacterial DNA for research? What are chemoautotrophs and where are they found? What uses pseudopods for movement? Know the diagram for paramecium. What are Sporozoans? Euglenoids have what as an outer covering? What gives algae different colors? What structure of a tree supplies its food? Know the parts of a seed. (diagram) What was the last evolutionary characteristic of plants? Know annual, perennial and biannual cycles. How is the cuticle of a leaf relater to transpiration? Go over alternation of generation-meiosis vs. mitosis Which gymnosperms are used for wood? What is an adaptive advantage of seeds? Know the parts and functions of a flower. Perfect vs. imperfect, complete vs. incomplete. A short day plant can also be referred to as a _________ __________ _________. Contrast germination vs. dormancy. When can photosynthesis begin in a plant? A pollen grain is really a What? Where does external fertilization in animals happen and why? Know the three cell layers, in order, in a gastrula. Contrast radial and bilateral symmetry. What is the advantage of segmentation? Go over the passage for Jellyfish Lake on your test. Why is it hard to “kill a sponge.” What purpose do sponges serve for other organisms?