Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

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AP Biology/ Presentation Outline
Ashley Kelch, Melanie Diaz, Joy Chao
Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition
Overview: The Need to Feed
 Herbivore, Carnivore, omnivore
 Three nutritional needs
41.1 Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animal’s energy budget
 Different types of feeders
1. Suspension feeders (def + example)
2. Substrate feeders (def + example)
3. Fluid Feeders (def + example)
4. Bulk feeders (def + example)
 ATP generation by oxidation of energy-rich organic molecules
 Glucose regulation, example of Homeostasis
1. Excess calories
2. Glycogen depots
 Caloric Imbalance
1. Undernourishment
2. Overnourishment
3. Fats and Carbohydrates
 Obesity as a Human Health Problem
1. Inheritence
2. Weight regulation treatment
3. Example of leptin
 Obesity and Evolution
1. Natural selection favors individuals able to obtain fatty foods
42.2 An animal’s diet must supply carbon skeleton and essential nutrients
 Carbon skeleton
 Essential nutrients
1. Malnourishment (mineral) vs. undernourishment (caloric)
2. Four essential nutrients
 Essential Amino Acid
1. Protein deficiency
2. Reliable source
3. Animal products vs. plant products
 Essential Fatty Acid
1. Types needed for animals
2. Usage
 Vitamins
1. Amount needed
2. Water soluble
3. Fat soluble
4. Usage
 Minerals
1. Amount needed
2. Different minerals, usage
AP Biology/ Presentation Outline
Ashley Kelch, Melanie Diaz, Joy Chao
41.3 The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and
elimination
 Food Processing
1. First stage- ingestion
2. Second stage- digestion
3. Third stage- absorption
4. Fourth stage- elimination
 Digestive compartments
1. Intracellular digestion
2. Extracellular digestion
3. Gastrovascular cavity
4. Complete digestive tract (alimentary canal)
 Digestion is different animals
1. Hydra
2. Earthworm
3. Grasshopper
4. Bird
41.4 Each organ of the mammalian digestive system specialized food-processing
functions
 Digestion Process
1. Begins in the mouth . . .
 Gastric juices
1. In stomach
2. Break the peptide bonds of proteins
 Villi and microvilli
1. In the small intestine
2. Increase surface area for the absorption of nutrients
3. (Figure 41.21 Flowchart of enzymatic digestion in the human digestive
system)
 Hormones
1. Regulation of digestive organs
 Large intestine
1. Absorbs most of the water from the digested food back into the body before
the remains are excreted
 Bacterias
1. Those living in the large intestine produce vitamins
2. Minerals absorbed by mammals
41.5 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems are often associated with
diet
 Mammalian bodies
1. Development of adaptations
2. Specialized diet
 Herbivores
1. Benefit of bacteria in alimentary canal
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