Digestive System Review - Science

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Nutrition & Digestion
Test Review
Nutrients
Substances needed for:
Cell repair
Cell growth
Energy
Obtained from the food we
eat
Nutrients
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Protein
Replacement of cells
Growth
Large molecules
Smaller molecules called
Amino Acids
Found in meats, eggs,
beans
Carbohydrates
Primary energy source
Molecules of C, H, O
Sugars ~ simple
carbohydrates
Starches ~ complex
carbohydrates
Fiber
Not digested; provides bulk
Fats
Provide energy / stores
energy
Absorb vitamins
Make up cell membranes
Vitamins
Organic (contain carbon)
Growth
Regulate body functions
Prevent disease
No food has all vitamins
Water soluble
Fat soluble
Stored in body
Minerals
Inorganic (no carbon)
Found on the periodic table
Control chemical reactions
Build cells
Conduct nerve impulses
Carry oxygen
Water
Nutrients carried in water
Used in chemical reactions
Digestion
Process the breaks down
food into small molecules
that can be used by the
body
Mechanical ~ chewing,
mixing, churning
Chemical ~ chemicals
break down food
Digestive system
Digestive tract
Alimentary canal
Organs used in digestion
Digestive system
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
Anus
Digestive system
Accessory organs ~ food
does not pass through
Liver
Gall bladder
Pancreas
Mouth
Teeth
Mechanical digestion ~
chewing
Chemical digestion ~
amylase in saliva
Esophagus
Peristalsis ~ muscular
action that moves food
Lined with mucus
Epiglottis prevent food
from going into trachea
Stomach
Muscular bag
Lined with folds
Mechanical & chemical
digestion
Enzymes (help speed up
chemical reactions) &
digestive juices
Chyme
Stomach
Small intestine
Most digestion occurs here
Lined with villi
Projections that increase
surface area
Small intestine
Large intestine
Colon
Absorbs water
Maintains homeostasis ~
steady state
Forms feces
Rectum ~ stores feces
Anus ~ strong round
muscles (sphincter)
Large intestine
Accessory organs
Produce and store digestive
chemicals
Food does not pass through
these
Liver
Makes bile
Liver
Gall bladder
Muscular sac attached to
the liver
Stores bile.
Gall bladder
Pancreas
Makes enzymes
Pancreas
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