Digestive system & nutrition unit vocabulary

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM & NUTRITION UNIT VOCABULARY
Term
Definition
Example
The process by which nutrients molecules
Absorption
pass through the wall of the small intestine into Diffusion.
the blood to be carried to the cells.
Make up proteins and needed for tissue
Amino acids
growth, repair and for chemical reactions that
take place in cells.
Muscular opening at the end of the rectum
Anus
where wastes (feces) exit the body.
A substance produced by the liver that breaks
Bile
up fat particles.
Unit used to measure the amount of energy in
Calorie
food.
An energy-rich organic compound, such as a
Carbohydrate
sugar or starch. Carbohydrates provide the raw
materials to make parts of cells.
Chemical
The process of enzymes chemically breaking
digestion
large food molecules into smaller molecules.
Waxy fat-like substance found in animal
Cholesterol
products that can clog arteries.
The process by which the body breaks down
Digestion
food to be used by cells.
Breaks down food, absorbs nutrients &
Digestive system
eliminates wastes.
A protein that speed up chemical reactions in
Saliva, pepsin,
Enzyme
the body.
hydrochloric acid.
The muscular tube that connects the mouth to
Esophagus
the stomach.
The process by which waste products are
Excretion
removed from the body.
Solid waste produced from fiber and unusable
Feces
food.
Indigestible parts of plants that is essential for
Fiber
healthy digestion.
The organ that stores bile after it is produced
Gall bladder
by the liver and releases it into the small
intestine.
Digestive enzyme that chemically breaks down
Hydrochloric acid
food in the stomach.
The last section of the digestive system where
Large intestine
water is absorbed and the remaining material
is prepared to be eliminated from the body.
An organic nutrient that is an energy storage
Lipid/fat
molecule.
The largest and heaviest organ inside the
Liver
body; produces bile and breaks down harmful
chemicals.
Mechanical
The physical process by which food is broken
Chewing & churning.
digestion
down into smaller pieces.
Mouth
Nutrition
Nutrient
Pancreas
Pepsin
Peristalsis
Protein
Rectum
Saliva
Small intestine
Stomach
Villi (plural)
Villus (singular)
Organ where chemical and mechanical
digestion are started by teeth and saliva.
The process by which organisms take n food to
use as energy.
A substance in food that provides energy or a
raw material that the body needs in order to
carry out its life processes.
A triangular organ that produces enzymes that
flow in to the small intestine.
Digestive enzyme that chemically breaks down
food in the stomach.
Involuntary smooth muscle contractions that
keep food moving along in one direction
Swallowing.
through the digestive system.
A large organic molecule that is used for tissue
growth and repair; plays an important role in
the chemical reactions of cells.
Short section at the end of the large intestine
where waste is compressed into solid form.
The enzyme released in the mouth that plays
an important role in both mechanical and
chemical digestion.
The part of the digestive system where most
chemical digestion & absorption of nutrients
occurs.
Muscular pouch located in the abdomen where
mechanical & chemical digestion of proteins
takes place.
Tiny finger-shaped structures that line the inner
surface of the small intestine to provide a large
surface area for absorption of nutrients.
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