Endocrine System

Endocrine System
• The endocrine
system includes
all the glands of
the body and
the hormones
produced by
those glands.
• A gland is a
group of cells
that produces
and secretes, or
gives off,
Endocrine System
• Exocrine glands, such as the sweat and
salivary glands, release secretions in the skin
or inside the mouth.
• Endocrine glands, release more than 20 major
hormones directly into the bloodstream
where they can be transported to cells in
other parts of the body.
Endocrine System
Multiple Functions of the
Endocrine System
• Primary function: to produce
specialized chemicals called
hormones. Hormones enter
the bloodstream and travel
to specific tissues or organs
of the body.
• Maintains an internal state
of equilibrium in the body
(homeostasis) so all body
systems function effectively.
Endocrine System
Main function of hormones is to regulate:
• Growth
• Metabolism
• Reproduction
• Energy level
• Sexual characteristics
Endocrine System
• The major glands that make
up the human endocrine
system include the:
• thymus
• pituitary
• thyroid
• parathyroids
• adrenal
• pineal
• reproductive glands (which
include the ovaries and
• pancreas
Pituitary Gland
• Regulates many
body activities
and stimulates
other glands to
secrete their own
• In our text there
is no word
element for the
pituitary gland.
Crin/o =
Thyroid Gland
• Produces thyroid
hormone which is the
body’s major
metabolic hormone.
• It affects almost every
cell in the body in
some way. It is vital to
stabilize growth and
development of the
& thyroid/o = thyroid gland
Parathyroid Glands
• Consist of at least
four separate glands
• Only secretes one
hormone which
regulates calcium
balance in three
target organs:
bones, kidneys, and
Parathyroid/o = parathyroid glands
Adrenal Glands
• Secretes hormones to
maintain the balance
of electrolytes
• Helps maintain the
metabolism of carbs,
fats and proteins.
• Helps regulate the
concentration of
glucose (or sugar) in
the blood.
Kal/i = potassium (an electrolyte)
Adren/o , adrenal/o =
adrenal glands
• Functions as an
exocrine gland by
carrying digestive
secretions to the small
• Endocrine gland it
secretes two hormones
that are important in
regulating blood
glucose levels.
Gluc/o, glyc/o, glycos/o =
sugar, sweetness
Pancreat/o = pancreas
Pineal Gland
• The function has not
been established,
but it is believed
that the secretion of
melatonin may
effect the timing of
• The text has no
word elements for
the pineal gland.
Thymus gland
• The thymus produces
hormones that help
develop T-lymphocytes
during fetal development
and childhood.
• The T-lymphocytes
produced in the thymus go
on to protect the body
from pathogens
throughout a person’s
entire life.
Thym/o = thymus gland
Reproductive glands
• Ovaries and testes:
secrete the
estrogen and
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