Class Notes, Chapter 2

Human Anatomy & Physiology

BSC2085 Summer 2010

Elizabeth Potter, Ph.D.


Chapter 2 – Class Notes

Please note: You may already be familiar with many of the materials in Chapter 2. However, we need to review these materials before we can go on to new concepts in Anatomy & Physiology. A suggested guide to studying Chapter 2 include: study all the Figures 2.1 through 2.24 including all the Tables in

Chapter 2 of the A & P Text; answer all the questions in the Class Notes, and this includes labeling of

Figures; answer all Chapter 2 Check your Understanding Questions and answer all Review Questions #

1-35, which includes multiple choice and short answers.

Define matter. What are its three states?

Define energy. What are two major types of energy?

What are 4 forms of energy? Which form of energy is most important to body functions?

Why is the conversion of energy from one form into another considered “inefficient”?

Name 2 characteristics of an element.

What is a unique building block for each element?

What are the 4 major elements of the human body, and where can each of these 4 elements be found in the human body?

As a gas, ______________ is needed for producing cellular energy, using ATP.

What are 9 lesser elements of the human body?

Name at least one role each of the 9 lesser elements plays in the human body.

What are 3 trace elements of the human body?

Where can they be found, and what is their role if they are a co-factor?

Describe the atomic structure, name the three major subatomic particles, give the mass and charge for each.

What kind of charge does an atom carry, if there are an equal number of protons and electrons?

What is an isotope?

How do scientists calculate the atomic weight of an element?

Isotope of heavier elements are unstable and become _____________

These radioisotopes have the ability to transform from one __________ into another.

What are two roles for radioisotopes?

What is the difference between a molecule and a compound?

Name 3 types of mixtures.

Describe three features of a solution.

Which three different ways can the concentrations of solutions be expressed?

What is a solute versus a solvent?

Describe three features of a colloid (emulsion).

Describe two features of a suspension, and name a common body fluid that is a suspension.

Describe three characteristics of mixtures and two characteristics of compounds.

What is the major difference between a mixture and a compound?

In reference to the atom and chemical bonds, what is the octet rule?

Which subatomic particle plays the most important role in forming chemical bonds?

What is a major feature of chemically inert elements?

What are two major features of chemically reactive elements?

What are the three types of chemical bonds?

Describe the formation of an ionic bond.

Describe the key feature of a covalent bond.

How do a nonpolar and polar covalent bond differ?

A polar molecule such as water has two poles of charge and is called a _____________

Describe a hydrogen bond, and name two places where you can find them.

What are 4 types of chemical reactions?

What is a catabolic versus an anabolic reaction?

What is an exergonic vesus an endergonic reaction?

If neither forward nor reverse reactions are dominant, there is chemical __________________.

Why are biological reactions essentially not reversible?

How do temperature, particle size, concentration and catalysts affect the rate of a chemical reaction?

Catalysts change a reaction without being chemically _____________

An enzyme is a _______________.

What is Biochemistry?

Name two classes of compounds. What is their major difference?

Name four types of inorganic compounds found in the body.

Name four types of organic compounds found in the body.

Organic compounds are usually large and ______________ bonded.

Water is called the __________________ solvent.

_______ to _______ percent of living organisms is water.

What are the five properties of water that are important to its roles in the body?

Name a role that water plays in the body that is related to each of its five properties.

Part 1: Continued below:


Hydrolysis _______ water to break down molecules, while ______________ synthesis

______________ water to build more complex molecules. Salts are ____________ compounds that

3 dissociate into _______ in water

In water, salts, acids and bases release ions that conduct electricity, and are called _______________.

An _________________ solution contains higher concentrations of H + , and an ______________solution contains higher concentrations of OH .

Precisely define pH.

What is the pH of distilled water?

The pH range of acids is ___________, while the pH range of bases is ____________. pH regulation is key to ____________________. pH is regulated by which 2 organs and which type of chemical in the body?

A buffer is a ____________ acid or ___________ base that plays this role:_________________.

What is the response of carbonic acid-bicarbonate system to addition of a strong acid? What is its response to addition of a strong base? Which form (weak acid or weak base) of the buffer predominates in ph 7.0 neutral solution (trick question)?

Part 2: Begins Here

Organic compounds contain _________________.

Which two carbon-containing gases are not called organic?

Name 4 organic compounds that are important to the body.

Give 2 reasons why carbon is so important to biochemistry in the body.

Organic compounds are created by ___________________ that ________ water, and broken down by

________________ that __________ water.

Sugars and starches are ______________________.

Name 3 classes of carbohydrates. Name 2 functions of carbohydrates.

What is the generic chemical formula of carbohydrates?

Name 5 monosaccharides that are important to the body.

Be able to label the chemical structure of each of the 5 monosaccharides.

How are disaccharides formed? How are disaccharides broken down?

Can disaccharides pass through cell membranes?

What sugars make up fructose, maltose, and galactose? (each combination is different)

Name two examples of polysaccharides that are polymers of glucose (only) and are important to the human body.

Which is the glucose storage molecule of plants? Of animals? Are polysaccharides very soluble?

What elements are included in lipids? Are lipids water-soluble?

What are the four major types of lipids found in the body?

What is the basic structure of a triglyceride? What are three functions of triglycerides?

Be able to label the basic chemical structure of a triglyceride.


List 4 types of triglycerides in order of being good to bad for your heart and blood vessels.

Phospholipids are _____________________ and this property allows them to be used as building blocks for cellular membranes.

Be able to label a basic chemical structure of a phospholipid.

Steroids have a flat structure with ______ interlocking hydrocarbon ___________.

Name 4 types of steroids that are important in the body.

Which steroid is the basis for all steroids formed in the body?

Be able to label a basic chemical structure of cholesterol.

Prostaglandin is an _________________________

Name 4 roles prostaglandins play in body functions.

Vitamins A, E, and K are fat-soluble _____________.

__________________ transport fats in the blood.

Proteins are polymers of _________________.

There are ______ different types of amino acids.

Amino acids differ from one another by their R group ________________.

Protein polymers are created by forming ____________ bonds between the ____________ and

____________ ends of two adjacent amino acids.

What are the 4 levels of structure for a protein?

Be able to label the features of a amino acid and also each level of protein structure.

Name 2 major types of Proteins

Fibrous proteins are also known as ____________________ proteins.

Collagen, the single most abundant protein in the body, is a _____________ protein.

Name 4 important types of Globular Proteins.

Protein denaturation (shape change and disruption of active sites) is reversible if conditions are not

_____________, and they return to normal.

What is the most important role of molecular chaperones?

Molecular chaperones seem to ________________ the cell when it is subjected to stressful situations

(e.g., heat, oxygen deprivation).

________________________ are biological catalysts that _____________ the activation energy to

_________________ the speed of a reaction.

A holoenzyme consists of two parts: an ________________ and a _________________.

A B complex vitamin is a cofactor that is more precisely called a ___________________.

Be able to label the interaction of Enzymes and Substrates, Figure 2-21 in A & P Text.

DNA is the ____________________ molecule of the body.

What are the 3 building blocks of DNA?

What are the 4 bases of DNA? What are the 2 base pairs of DNA?

DNA structure is a _______-stranded structure located in the cell ________________.

DNA provides __________________ for protein synthesis.

DNA replicates _________________cell division, ensuring ________________________.

Be able to label Figures 2-22 (a), and 2-22 (b) of the A & P Text.

What are the 4 bases of RNA? What are the 2 RNA base pairs.

RNA is a ____________-stranded structure mostly active ____________ the cell nucleus.

______________ carries out the _________ orders for cell synthesis.

How does the structure of ATP compare to that of the adenine nucleotide of RNA?

What is the main function of ATP?

Name three types of work performed by ATP.

Please Label the following Diagrams; First drawing is Figure 2.14 ( c ) p. 42, A & P Text