Guiding questions for unit 4A What is DNA? What is the structure of working DNA? What are the 4 Nitrogen bases in DNA? What is the shape of DNA? What sugar is found in DNA? What is RNA? What is the shape of RNA? What are the 4 nitrogen bases in RNA? What sugar is found in RNA? What are the 3 types of RNA? What is complementary base pairing going from DNA to another DNA (replication)? What is a chromosome? What are sister chromatids? How many chromososmes does a human have? Where does crossing over occur? What gets swapped during crossing over? Females are represented by which letter combination? Males are represented by which letter combination? What is the genetic code? What is transcription? Where does transcription take place? Which enzyme works during transcription? What is the complementary base pairing during transcription (going DNA to mRNA) What is translation? Where does translation take place? What are codons? What are genes? How are genes expressed? What are proteins? Name the 2 types of proteins. What is the monomer for proteins? Describe the structure of amino acids. How many amino acids are there? What is an essential amino acid? What type of bond holds the amino acids together in a protein? How are proteins created? What is the Central Dogma? What are introns? What are exons? What is a mutation? Describe and explain gene mutations. Describe and explain chromosomal mutations. What is the difference between a gene mutation and a chromosomal mutation? What is a karyotype? What information can you obtain from a karyotype of a person’s genome? What is the 23rd chromosome combination for a female? What is the 23rd chromosomal combination for a male? Name two genetic disorders that are a result of non-disjunction. What is a pedigree? What do the different shapes in a pedigree represent? What does it mean if the shape is colored in completely? If it is half colored?