How Effective Teachers Teach Reading and Writing Principle #1 - Effective Teachers Understand How Children Learn Balanced Literacy promotes both teacher centered theories (Behaviorism) and student centered learning theories (Constructivism, Interactive, Sociolinguistic, Reader Response and Critical Literacy). *See chart on page 13 Principle #2 – Effective Teachers Support Children’s Use of The Four Cueing Systems The phonological or sound system The syntactic or structural system The semantic or meaning system The pragmatic or social and cultural use system *See chart on page 17 Principle #3 – Effective Teachers Create a Community of Learners 1. Responsibility – Students are responsible for their own learning and see themselves as a valuable/contributing part of the classroom community. 2. Opportunities – Students have opportunities to read and write for real/meaningful purposes. 3. Engagement – Students are motivated to learn and are actively involved in reading and writing activities. They have choices. 4. Demonstration – Teachers provide demonstrations of literacy skills and strategies and children observe and learn. 5. Risk Taking – Students are encouraged to explore topics, make guesses, and take risks. 6. Instruction – Teachers are expert readers and writers. They are part of the community that guides the learning experience with minilessons on procedures, skills and strategies related to reading and writing. 7. Response – Children share personal connections to stories, make predictions, ask questions and deepen their comprehension as they write and discuss their own stories and the stories of other authors. 8. Choice – Students are often able to make choices of their own about what they read and write. This is highly motivating. 9. Time – Children need large chunks of time to pursue reading and writing activities. 2-3 hours of interrupted time is recommended. (see page 10 for ideal schedule) 10. Assessment – Teachers and children work together to establish guidelines for assessment so that children can monitor their own work and participate in evaluation. Principle #4 – Effective Teachers Adopt a Balanced Approach to Literacy Instruction Even though balanced programs vary, they usually embody these characteristics: Literacy is viewed comprehensively involving both reading and writing Literature is at the heart of the program Skills and strategies are taught both directly and indirectly Reading instructions involves learning word recognition and identification, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension Writing instruction involves learning to express meaningful ideas and use conventional spelling, grammar, and punctuation to express those ideas Students use reading and writing as tools for learning in the other content areas. The goal is to develop lifelong readers and writers. Principle #5 – Effective Teachers Scaffold Children’s Reading and Writing Experiences Level of support goes from high to low. Modeled, Shared, Interactive, Guided, Independent (see page 27) Principle #6 – Effective Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction in Four Ways 1. 2. 3. 4. Basal Reading Programs Literature Focus Units Literature Circles Reading and Writing Workshop *See chart on pages 32 and 33. *Refer to Miss Pannicia’s 4th grade classroom Principle #7 – Effective Teachers Connect Instruction to Assessment Teachers need assessment information that tells about the complex achievements students are making in reading and writing. Assessment procedures: Determine students’ background knowledge Identify students’ reading levels Monitor students’ learning Identify strengths and weaknesses in students’ reading and writing Analyze students’ spelling development Document student learning Showcase students’ best work Assign grades Standardized testing Principle #8 – Effective Teachers Become Partners with Parents Viewing parents as partners involves . . . . . . providing literacy information to parents. . . . using them as volunteers within a quality volunteering program. . . . supporting literacy at home. . . .encouraging and supporting family literacy.