Underlying Theory and Principles Behind Literacy Activities (Cunningham & Allington, 1994 I. Fountas & Pinnell, 1996) All children can and want to learn to read and write. Real reading and writing are intrinsically motivating. Instruction needs to be intensive, extensive, explicit, and consistent. An organized environment supports the learning process. Children learn about written language in an environment that is print rich. Learning is a constructive process. Children learn to talk by talking, read by reading, and write by writing. Therefore, in order to improve literacy skills students need to spend more time on literacy activities. Learning is a social process. Children learn from each other. Powerful demonstrations are an important part of the learning. Children learn best when they are responsible for their own learning. Success precedes motivation and once children see that they can be successful, they will participate; thus, teachers must engineer success! Literacy instruction is embedded in meaningful context.