Unit 2 Study Guide - Catholic Community

Social Studies Study Guide – Unit 2
Spanish Conquerors
 Hernando Cortés prevented his troops from turning back from their quest to conquer the Aztecs
by burning most of his ships so they could not go back.
 Christopher Columbus sailed west from Spain to find a new route to Asia.
 To spread Christianity throughout the new lands, the Spanish established Missions.
 Hernando de Soto led the expedition of the first Europeans to see the Mississippi River.
 The Spanish made slaves of the Native Americans, but the Spanish King made that illegal so
they turned to Africans as slaves to help them build cities, mine gold, and grow crops.
 Spanish exploration of the Americas caused many Native American tribes to be devastated by
disease and violence.
French Explorers
 The French and other Europeans searched in vain for the Northwest Passage, a water route to
Asia around North America.
 The French built Quebec along the St. Lawrence River in a place the Hurons called Kebec.
 French traders were eager to get beaver pelts or furs from the Native Americans.
 Native Americans taught the French to make birchbark canoes to navigate shallow waters.
 Cartier established a friendly, fur-trade relationship between the French and the Huron.
English Colonies
 Queen Elizabeth protected sea dogs (pirates) like Francis Drake because they shared their
treasure with her.
 Francis Drake was an English sea dog who led the second expedition around the world.
 Queen Elizabeth wanted a colony in North America because the most powerful countries all had
 John White could not return immediately from England with supplies for the colonists on
Roanoke Island because England was at war with Spain and needed all available ships to fight
the Spanish Armada.
Misc. Explorers
 Prince Henry of Portugal was known as “the Navigator” because he established a school to train
sailors in navigation.
 Christopher Columbus believed he could find a water route to Asia by sailing west across the
Atlantic Ocean. Although he did not reach Asia, his expedition led many Europeans to the
 Although he died before the end of his journey, Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to
sail around the world.
 The Columbian Exchange is the exchange of goods and ideas between Europe (Old World) and
the Americas (New World).
 After capturing Constantinople, the Turks closed the trade routes (Silk Road), affecting trade
between Europe and Asia.
 An estuary is the wide mouth of a river where the ocean tides flow in.
 A person who makes maps is a Cartographer.
 A treaty is an agreement between nations about peace, trade, or other matters.
 An armada is a fleet of warships.