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Chapter 1
Cells and Genomes
The Universal Features of cells on earth (pages 1-11; figures 1-1 to 1-14)
1.
All cells have DNA as the genetic material
2.
All cells replicate their DNA by templated polymerization
3.
All cells transcribe a portion of their genetic material into RNA
4.
All cells use proteins as catalysts
5.
All cells translate into proteins in the same way
6.
Fragment of genetic information corresponding to one protein is one gene
7.
Requirement of energy by living cells
8.
All cells use the same building blocks
9.
All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane
10.
A living cell can exist with fewer than 500 genes – the minimal genome concept.
The diversity of genomes and the tree of life (pages 11-22; figures 1-15 to 1-25)
11.
Cells can use various free energy sources
organotrophic; phototrophic; lithotrophic
12.
Some cells can fix nitrogen and carbon dioxide
13.
Procaryotes exhibit the greatest biochemical diversity
14.
Tree of life – three domains – bacteria, archaea, and eucaryotes
15.
New genes are generated from preexisting genes
16.
Gene duplications give rise to gene families
homologs, paralogs, and orthologs
17.
Genes can be transferred between organisms
Genetic information in eucaryotes (pages 26-31; figures 1-30 to 1-37)
18.
Eucaryotic cells may have originated as predators
19.
Modern eucaryotic cells evolved from a symbiosis
20.
Eucaryotes have hybrid genomes
21.
Eucaryotic genomes are big
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