Name: _______________________________________ Date: ___________________________ AP Bio Reading Guide: Regulating the Genome / Chapters 18.1, 18.2, 18.4, 21.3, 21.4 18.1 1. Metabolic control works on two levels. First, cells can adjust _____________________________ _________________________________________ . Second, cells can adjust the production level of certain enzymes by regulating _______________________________________________ ___________________________________ . 2. What is a key advantage of grouping genes of related function into one transcription unit? 3. What is an operon? 4. What is the difference between a repressible and an inducible operon? 5. In negative control of genes, the operons are ____________ by the active form of the repressor protein. In positive regulation, a regulatory protein interacts directly with the genome to __________________________________ . 6. An example of positive gene regulation is when the small organic molecule __________ binds to the regulatory protein CAP and stimulates transcription. 18.2 7. What percentage of genes are expressed at a time in a typical human cell? ____________ 8. Why do cells that have the same DNA have different functions? 9. Describe the following methods of gene regulation: a. (Pre-Transcription) Histone acetylation b. (Pre-Transcription) DNA methylation c. (Trancription) Control elements d. (Transcription) Enhancers e. (Post-Transcription) Alternative RNA splicing 10. How does the life span of mRNA in the cytoplasm differ between bacteria and eukaryotes? What affects how long the mRNA remains intact? 18.4 11. The transformation of a zygote into an organism results from three inter-related processes: _______________________ , ___________________________ , and ____________________ . 12. What are the two important sources of information that a cell uses to tell which genes to express at any time during embryonic development? 13. Differentiated cells are specialists at making _________________________________________ . 14. The organism ____________________________ was used to study genetic effects on early development. This organism’s body can be divided into three major sections: _____________ , ____________________ , and ________________________ . 15. What is a homeotic gene? 16. What is a maternal effect gene? Give an example. 21.2 17. The establishment of genetic databases has accelerated progress in DNA sequence analysis by making ______________________________________________________________________ __________________ and by speeding up the _______________________________________ _____________________________ . 18. What is the challenge of reverse genetics? 19. What is one important use of the systems biology approach? 20. What is the Cancer Genome Atlas? 21.3 21. True or false? Prokaryotic genomes are typically smaller than eukaryotic genomes. _______ 22. True or false? More complicated eukaryotes have larger genomes than less complicated eukaryotes. __________________ 23. The Human Genome Project change our view on the number of human genes. How many did we expect to find, and how many did we find? 24. How does the gene density of prokaryotes compare to the gene density of eukaryotes? What accounts for most of this difference?