Name: Date: AP Bio Reading Guide: Regulating the Genome

Name: _______________________________________
Date: ___________________________
AP Bio Reading Guide: Regulating the Genome / Chapters 18.1, 18.2, 18.4, 21.3, 21.4
1. Metabolic control works on two levels. First, cells can adjust _____________________________
_________________________________________ . Second, cells can adjust the production
level of certain enzymes by regulating _______________________________________________
___________________________________ .
2. What is a key advantage of grouping genes of related function into one transcription unit?
3. What is an operon?
4. What is the difference between a repressible and an inducible operon?
5. In negative control of genes, the operons are ____________ by the active form of the repressor
protein. In positive regulation, a regulatory protein interacts directly with the genome to
__________________________________ .
6. An example of positive gene regulation is when the small organic molecule __________ binds to
the regulatory protein CAP and stimulates transcription.
7. What percentage of genes are expressed at a time in a typical human cell? ____________
8. Why do cells that have the same DNA have different functions?
9. Describe the following methods of gene regulation:
a. (Pre-Transcription) Histone acetylation
b. (Pre-Transcription) DNA methylation
c. (Trancription) Control elements
d. (Transcription) Enhancers
e. (Post-Transcription) Alternative RNA splicing
10. How does the life span of mRNA in the cytoplasm differ between bacteria and eukaryotes?
What affects how long the mRNA remains intact?
11. The transformation of a zygote into an organism results from three inter-related processes:
_______________________ , ___________________________ , and ____________________ .
12. What are the two important sources of information that a cell uses to tell which genes to
express at any time during embryonic development?
13. Differentiated cells are specialists at making _________________________________________ .
14. The organism ____________________________ was used to study genetic effects on early
development. This organism’s body can be divided into three major sections: _____________ ,
____________________ , and ________________________ .
15. What is a homeotic gene?
16. What is a maternal effect gene? Give an example.
17. The establishment of genetic databases has accelerated progress in DNA sequence analysis by
making ______________________________________________________________________
__________________ and by speeding up the _______________________________________
_____________________________ .
18. What is the challenge of reverse genetics?
19. What is one important use of the systems biology approach?
20. What is the Cancer Genome Atlas?
21. True or false? Prokaryotic genomes are typically smaller than eukaryotic genomes. _______
22. True or false? More complicated eukaryotes have larger genomes than less complicated
eukaryotes. __________________
23. The Human Genome Project change our view on the number of human genes. How many did
we expect to find, and how many did we find?
24. How does the gene density of prokaryotes compare to the gene density of eukaryotes? What
accounts for most of this difference?