Ring of Fire, or the Where, What, and Why of Volcanoes… Introduction There are more than 1,500 active volcanoes in the world. An active volcano is one that has erupted at least once in the past 10,000 years and is likely to erupt again. Because most of the Earth’s volcanoes are hidden under the oceans, people have not been able to witness their eruptions. Every year, about 50-60 volcanoes erupt on land where people might be able to see them. Scientists estimate that there are about 200 volcanic eruptions under the oceans. The shaded area on your map is called the “Ring of Fire.” Your observations will reveal why. Objective The goal is to create a map showing the different types of plate boundaries, direction of plate motion, the locations of several active volcanoes, and the types of these volcanoes in order to observe how they are related. This is a list of some active, or recently active, volcanoes. Name, Location Type 1. Azul, Chile Composite 2. Bezymianmy, Russia Composite 3. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua Cinder cone 4. Cotopaxi, Ecuador Composite 5. Erebus, Antarctica Composite 6. Katmai, AK, USA Composite 7. Kilauea, HI, USA Shield 8. Krakatau, Indonesia Composite 9. Ksudach, Russia Shield 10. La Palma, Canary ISS Composite 11. Lassen Peak, CA, USA Composite 12. Mt. Etna, Italy Shield 13. Mt. Fuji, Japan Composite 14. Mt. Pelée, Martinique Composite 15. Mt. Rainier, WA, USA Composite 16. Mt. St. Helens, WA, USA Composite 17. Nevada del Ruiz, Colombia Composite 18. Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania Composite 19. Parícutin, Mexico Cinder cone 20. Pinatubo, Philippines Composite 21. Sunset Crater, AZ, USA Cinder cone 22. Surtsey, Iceland Shield 23. Tambora, Indonesia Composite 24. Vesuvius, Italy Composite Last Erupted 1967 1993 1971 1942 1980 1912 1995 1894 1907 1954 1914 1993 1709 1932 1894 1986 1991 1993 1952 1992 1065 1967 1967 1944 Procedure Using the provided map and the map found in your textbook (page 159): 1. Choose a different color to represent each type of plate boundary and label each boundary on your map (convergent, divergent, transform). 2. Draw arrows at each boundary to indicate direction of plate motion. 3. Using a different color to represent each volcano type. Draw a circle around each volcano number. 4. Create a legend for your map Observations and Analysis On a separate sheet of paper (or on the back of your map), please answer the following sentences. Remember to write in complete sentences, so that you can infer what the question is asking from your answer. (Hint: diagram on page 160-161 may also be useful) 1. Are most of the volcanoes located in the Ring of Fire? 2. Where are the most of the volcanoes located in relation to the tectonic plates? 3. Are there certain types of boundaries (convergent, divergent, transform) where volcanoes are more likely to be found? If so, which type? 4. Please give more details about these boundaries. Which types of plates are involved (oceanic, continental, both)? 5. Please list the number of each type of volcano on your map. # of Composite: # of shield volcanoes: # of cinder cones: 6. What type of volcano is most common in the Ring of Fire? 7. Do you observe a relationship between volcano type (Composite, shield volcano, cinder cones) and plate type (oceanic, continental, both)? Please explain. Conclusions Please write 3 sentences summing up what you have learned about how the different types of tectonic plates, plate boundaries, and volcanoes are related. Last Name ____________________ First Name ____________________ Date ___________ Period ________ Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Observations and Analysis: Answer the following questions. (Hint: diagram on page 160-161 may also be useful) 1. Are most of the volcanoes located in the Ring of Fire? 2. Are most of the volcanoes located near the boundaries or on the interior of the tectonic plates? 3. At which type of boundary (convergent, divergent, transform) are volcanoes more likely to be found? 4. Which process occurs at this type of boundary: subduction or divergence? 5. Please list the number of each type of volcano on your map. ________ # of Composite _______ # of shield volcanoes _______ # of cinder cones 6. What type of volcano is most common in the Ring of Fire? 7. Do you observe a relationship between volcano type (Composite, shield volcano, cinder cones) and type of plate boundary (oceanic, continental, both)? Please explain. Conclusions Write 3 sentences summing up what you have learned about how the different types of tectonic plates, plate boundaries, and volcanoes are related.