Chapter 9 Winning the Revolution Name: _________________________________ #________ Lesson 1 1. What was the first thing the Second Continental Congress did when they met? Formed a Continental Army 2. Who did the Second Continental Congress choose to lead the new American Army? George Washington 3. What was the Olive Branch Petition? What did this petition say? Letter sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III to avoid war. It said that war could be avoided if the British government would give the colonists greater freedom to govern themselves. 4. Who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense to convince Americans it was time to declare independence? Thomas Paine 5. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence. What is the Declaration of Independence? Document declaring the 13 Colonies independent of Great Britain 6. What caused the American colonists to declare independence from Britain? The king had abused his power 7. What rights of the colonists, known as “unalienable rights,” had the king abused? Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness 8. When did congress approve the Declaration of Independence? July 4, 1776 9. For signing the Declaration of Independence, the members of the Second Continental Congress could be considered traitors. What is a traitor? What could happen to traitors? A person who works against his or her country. Traitors could be put to death by hanging. Chapter 9 Lesson 2 1. Who won the Battle of Saratoga? Americans 2. What is the Battle of Saratoga called? Why is it called this? The turning point of the American Revolution. It showed the world that the Continental Army could win the war. 3. What did French leaders decide to do after Saratoga? To join the Americans in their fight against Britain. 4. How did Peter Salem contribute to the American Revolution? He fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill where he shot and killed a British officer. He also helped at the Battle of Saratoga. 5. What did Martha Washington do to help the army? Traveled with the army cooking, delivering food, and visiting wounded soldiers. She also knitted socks and mended uniforms. 6. What did Mary Ludwig Hays do to help with the war? She carried pitchers of water to soldiers on the battlefield. Soldiers called her Molly pitcher. She took over her husband’s cannon when he collapsed from the heat. 7. How did Abigail Adams support American independence? Wrote letters supporting American independence and spoke out for women’s rights. 8. Where did Washington and his army set up camp for the winter? What problems did they face? Valley Forge Hunger, cold, and disease Chapter 9 Lesson 3 1. How was France helping with the war? They sent ships, soldiers, and money to help the Americans in the war. 2. Who was Marquis de Lafayette? What did he do to help with the war? A young soldier from France who joined Washington’s staff as an officer. 3. How did Washington plan to trap the British at Yorktown? American and French soldiers could surround Yorktown by land and the French navy could block the town by sea. 4. What did the Americans do to get Cornwallis to surrender? Americans shot cannons at them day after day until they surrendered. 5. Why was the battle of Yorktown important? It was the last major battle of the American Revolution. 6. What was the Treaty of Paris? What Americans signed the Treaty of Paris? A treaty that officially ended the American Revolution and recognized the United States of America as an independent nation. It was signed by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. 7. After the war, what new struggle did Americans face? They had to decide what kind of government the country would have, what to do about slavery, and what would happen to Native Americans who lived on land in the U.S.