Muscular System Handout Part 2 Disorders of the Muscular System Tendonitis (tendin/o + -itis) - _________________________ of the tendon caused by excessive or repetitive use of a joint. ________________________ (my/o + -algia) - Muscle tenderness or pain Myorrhexis (my/o + -rrhexis) - ___________________ of the muscle Dystaxia (dys- + tax/o + ia) - Difficulty controlling ________________________ movement Contracture - Abnormal ______________________ of the muscle tissue making the muscles resistant to stretching Spasm (____________) - Sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles Bradykinesia (brady + kinesi/o + ia) - Extreme _____________________ in movement ___________________________ Gravis - Chronic autoimmune disease where there is difficulty in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of extreme muscle _________________________. Frequently affects the ___________________ that control eye movements, eyelids, chewing, swallowing, coughing and facial expression. What kind of problems could the patient have?? Muscular Dystrophy (dys + trophy) - Group of ___________________ affecting the nervous system. disorders that cause muscle weakness Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy - Form of muscular dystrophy that appears from ___________ yrs of age and progresses slowly. Survival beyond late twenties is ______________. _________________________________ (fibr/o + my/o + -algia) - Chronic disorder of unknown cause. Causes widespread aching pain, tender points, and fatigue. This syndrome does not cause joint deformity, is not a progressive illness, and is not crippling. Tender points - Abnormal areas of _____________________. Usually in predictable locations at the base of the neck, along the spine, in front of the hip and elbow and behind the knee and shoulder. Rotator Cuff tendinitis - Inflammation of the tendons of the ___________________ cuff. The condition is often named for the cause (tennis shoulder, pitcher’s shoulder). See figure 4.12, p. 72 ____________________ Tunnel Syndrome - Occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen. Swelling creates _______________ on the nerve as it passes through the tunnel, causing pain, burning, and tingling in the fingers and hand. See figure 4.13, p. 73 Sprain - Injury to a __________________ (ex. - ankle, knee, wrist). Frequently involves a stretched or torn ligament. Ligaments attach ______ to bone. _________________ - Injury to the body of a muscle or the attachment of a tendon. Usually associated with overuse injuries. Tendons attach ________ to bone. Shin Splint - Pain caused by muscle tearing away from the _______________. Usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg. Paralysis - Loss of sensation and ______________________ muscle movement due to disease or injury. Damage can be _________________________ or permanent Paraplegia - Paralysis of __________ legs and the lower part of the body. ________________ cervical vertebra. Spinal cord injury is Quadriplegia (quadr/i + -plegia) - Paralysis of all ______________ extremities. involves the cervical vertebra. Above C5, respiration is affected. Spinal cord injury ________________________ (hemi + -plegia) - Total paralysis on __________ side of the body. Usually associated with a stroke or brain injury. Damage to one side of brain causes paralysis on the opposite side of the body. Diagnostic Procedures Electromyography (electro- + my/o + graphy) - Records the ___________________ of the muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation Deep Tendon Reflexes - Reflexes are tested with a reflex __________________ to strike the tendon. No response or an __________________ response may indicate a disruption of the nerve supply to the involved muscles. Treatments / Procedures ____________________________ - Anti-inflammatory medications (Advil, Motrin) are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation muscular problems. Physical _______________________ - May be used to restore function through the use of exercise, heat, massage, etc… to improve circulation, flexibility and muscle strength. Career Opportunities Physical Therapist - Provide treatments to improve __________________ and prevent or limit permanent disability; can subspecialize in sports medicine, pediatrics, geriatrics, etc… ______________________ Therapist - therapeutic touch to provide pain relief and encourage healing. Occupational Therapist - Treats people with mental, physical, developmental and emotional disabilities helping them to develop or ___________________ daily living skills. Athletic _________________ - Work to prevent and treat athletic injuries and provide rehabilitative services by massage, corrective exercises, diet supervision, and _________________________ fittings.