Muscular System Handout

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Muscular System Handout
Part 2
Disorders of the Muscular System
Tendonitis (tendin/o + -itis) - _________________________ of the tendon caused by excessive or
repetitive use of a joint.
________________________ (my/o + -algia) - Muscle tenderness or pain
Myorrhexis (my/o + -rrhexis) - ___________________ of the muscle
Dystaxia (dys- + tax/o + ia) - Difficulty controlling ________________________ movement
Contracture - Abnormal ______________________ of the muscle tissue making the muscles resistant to
stretching
Spasm (____________) - Sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles
Bradykinesia (brady + kinesi/o + ia) - Extreme _____________________ in movement
___________________________ Gravis - Chronic autoimmune disease where there is difficulty in the
neuromuscular function causing episodes of extreme muscle _________________________.
Frequently affects the ___________________ that control eye movements, eyelids, chewing,
swallowing, coughing and facial expression. What kind of problems could the patient have??
Muscular Dystrophy (dys + trophy) - Group of
___________________ affecting the nervous system.
disorders
that
cause
muscle
weakness
Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy - Form of muscular dystrophy that appears from ___________ yrs of
age and progresses slowly. Survival beyond late twenties is ______________.
_________________________________ (fibr/o + my/o + -algia) - Chronic disorder of unknown cause.
Causes widespread aching pain, tender points, and fatigue. This syndrome does not cause joint
deformity, is not a progressive illness, and is not crippling.
Tender points - Abnormal areas of _____________________. Usually in predictable locations at the
base of the neck, along the spine, in front of the hip and elbow and behind the knee and shoulder.
Rotator Cuff tendinitis - Inflammation of the tendons of the ___________________ cuff. The condition is
often named for the cause (tennis shoulder, pitcher’s shoulder). See figure 4.12, p. 72
____________________ Tunnel Syndrome - Occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal
tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen. Swelling creates _______________
on the nerve as it passes through the tunnel, causing pain, burning, and tingling in the fingers and hand.
See figure 4.13, p. 73
Sprain - Injury to a __________________ (ex. - ankle, knee, wrist). Frequently involves a stretched or
torn ligament. Ligaments attach ______ to bone.
_________________ - Injury to the body of a muscle or the attachment of a tendon. Usually associated
with overuse injuries. Tendons attach ________ to bone.
Shin Splint - Pain caused by muscle tearing away from the _______________. Usually caused by
repeated stress to the lower leg.
Paralysis - Loss of sensation and ______________________ muscle movement due to disease or
injury. Damage can be _________________________ or permanent
Paraplegia - Paralysis of __________ legs and the lower part of the body.
________________ cervical vertebra.
Spinal cord injury is
Quadriplegia (quadr/i + -plegia) - Paralysis of all ______________ extremities.
involves the cervical vertebra. Above C5, respiration is affected.
Spinal cord injury
________________________ (hemi + -plegia) - Total paralysis on __________ side of the body.
Usually associated with a stroke or brain injury. Damage to one side of brain causes paralysis on the
opposite side of the body.
Diagnostic Procedures
Electromyography (electro- + my/o + graphy) - Records the ___________________ of the muscle
contractions as a result of electrical stimulation
Deep Tendon Reflexes - Reflexes are tested with a reflex __________________ to strike the tendon.
No response or an __________________ response may indicate a disruption of the nerve supply to the
involved muscles.
Treatments / Procedures
____________________________ - Anti-inflammatory medications (Advil, Motrin) are commonly used to
relieve pain and reduce inflammation muscular problems.
Physical _______________________ - May be used to restore function through the use of exercise,
heat, massage, etc… to improve circulation, flexibility and muscle strength.
Career Opportunities
Physical Therapist - Provide treatments to improve __________________ and prevent or limit
permanent disability; can subspecialize in sports medicine, pediatrics, geriatrics, etc…
______________________ Therapist - therapeutic touch to provide pain relief and encourage healing.
Occupational Therapist - Treats people with mental, physical, developmental and emotional disabilities
helping them to develop or ___________________ daily living skills.
Athletic _________________ - Work to prevent and treat athletic injuries and provide rehabilitative
services by massage, corrective exercises, diet supervision, and _________________________ fittings.
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