Notes on the Nile River Valley Civilization… The ancient Egyptians settled along the Nile River and started a civilization around 2700 BCE. All of Egypt was united under one strong Monarchy led by Pharaohs. The Pharaohs introduced complex systems of taxation to help the poor. The Egyptians depended on the seasonal floods of the Nile so that they could grow wheat, vegetables, and flax, used for making clothing. The dependable Nile, and strong government made Egypt the most stable of the river valley civilizations. The Egyptians had a polytheistic religion which saw natural things such as the sun, moon, and stars as part of their religion . Their pharaohs were seen as a reincarnation of gods on earth. The Egyptians made many contributions to civilization. They advanced mathematics and created a number system based on 10, like our decimal system. They were the first to create a calendar that had 365 days in a year. They greatly advanced medicine, they had prescriptions, they could set bones, and even performed surgery. Also, they had great knowledge of the stars, they followed and named the same constellations we look at today. They created the earliest form of paper called papyrus, and had a writing system based on symbols called hieroglyphics. But, by far the greatest achievements and contributions of the ancient Egyptians were the great pyramids and architectural marvels that still stand today, thousands of years after they were built. The pyramids generally took 20,000 workers a day for 20 years to build. These pyramids show how strong and stable the Pharaoh government was. 1.) Give 2 similarities between Egypt and Mesopotamia. 2.) Give 2 differences between Egypt and Mesopotamia.