Chapter 2, Section 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom Vocabulary pharaoh mummy deity embalming pyramid Old Kingdom Rulers • _____________ lasted from 2600 B.C. to 2300 B.C. • Egypt grew and prospered. • The _________ was an all-powerful ruler who guided every activity in Egypt. • His word was law and had to be followed w/o question!!! • Pharaohs appointed many officials to carry out their commands. • Why did Egyptians willingly serve the pharaoh? – People believed unity of the kingdom depended on one strong leader. – Believed Pharaohs were the sons of ____, the sun god. – Believed Pharaohs were gods on Earth. Rameses II Thutmose III Tutankhamun Amenhotep II Egypt’s Religion • Egyptians believed in many gods & goddesses called __________. • Deities controlled every human activity & all natural forces. • Examples of gods: • • • • Re—sun god. Hapi—ruled the Nile River. _______--most important goddess/represented loyal mother & wife. _________--god of the dead & ruler of the underworld. • Egyptians believed in life after death. • __________________ contained collection of spells Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife. • For centuries, Egyptians believed only pharaohs & a few elite people could have life after death. Egypt’s Religion • To protect Pharaoh’s body after death, Egyptians developed ____________ process. • During process, the body’s organs were removed. • Body was treated with spices & oils and then wrapped in strips of linen. • The wrapped body was called a _______________. • Go to following web address to learn more: • http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/mummies/home.html • Egyptian doctors used _____ & _____ to treat illnesses. • They also set broken bones and stitched cuts. • Egyptian doctors were first doctors to specialize in different areas of medicine!!! • They wrote the world’s first medical book!!! The Pyramids • Built ________ to protect bodies of dead pharaohs. • Pyramids also contained items that pharaohs might need in afterlife. • Took thousands of people and years of labor to build. • Used astronomy and mathematics to create pyramids. – Invented 365-day calendar w/12 months grouped into 3 seasons—this became the basis for our modern calendar. – Made advances in mathematics, including number system based on 10. • To build pyramids, Egyptians had to: • Select a site and then search for stone. • Artisans cut stone into blocks & workers tied stone to wooden sleds & pulled them to Nile River. • Workers loaded stone onto barges & floated them to the site. • Blocks were unloaded & dragged or pushed up ramps. The Pyramids • Largest pyramid is known as the ______________. • Located about 10 miles from modern city of Cairo. • Was built for _____________. • It is one of three still standing in __________ on the west bank of the Nile. • It rises nearly _______ feet above the desert. • About the size of 9 football fields & contains about 2.3 million stone blocks. Each block weighs an average of 2.5 tons!!!