Chapter 2, Section 2 Egypt`s Old Kingdom Vocabulary

Chapter 2, Section 2
Egypt’s Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom Rulers
• _____________ lasted from 2600 B.C. to 2300
• Egypt grew and prospered.
• The _________ was an all-powerful ruler who guided
every activity in Egypt.
• His word was law and had to be followed w/o question!!!
• Pharaohs appointed many officials to carry out their commands.
• Why did Egyptians willingly serve the pharaoh?
– People believed unity of the kingdom depended on one strong leader.
– Believed Pharaohs were the sons of ____, the sun god.
– Believed Pharaohs were gods on Earth.
Rameses II
Thutmose III
Amenhotep II
Egypt’s Religion
• Egyptians believed in many gods & goddesses called
• Deities controlled every human activity & all natural forces.
• Examples of gods:
Re—sun god.
Hapi—ruled the Nile River.
_______--most important goddess/represented loyal mother & wife.
_________--god of the dead & ruler of the underworld.
• Egyptians believed in life after death.
• __________________ contained collection of spells Egyptians
believed they needed to enter the afterlife.
• For centuries, Egyptians believed only pharaohs & a few elite people
could have life after death.
Egypt’s Religion
• To protect Pharaoh’s body after death, Egyptians
developed ____________ process.
• During process, the body’s organs were removed.
• Body was treated with spices & oils and then wrapped in strips of
• The wrapped body was called a _______________.
• Go to following web address to learn more:
• Egyptian doctors used _____ & _____ to treat
• They also set broken bones and stitched cuts.
• Egyptian doctors were first doctors to specialize in different areas
of medicine!!!
• They wrote the world’s first medical book!!!
The Pyramids
• Built ________ to protect bodies of dead pharaohs.
• Pyramids also contained items that pharaohs might need in afterlife.
• Took thousands of people and years of labor to build.
• Used astronomy and mathematics to create pyramids.
– Invented 365-day calendar w/12 months grouped into 3 seasons—this
became the basis for our modern calendar.
– Made advances in mathematics, including number system based on 10.
• To build pyramids, Egyptians had to:
• Select a site and then search for stone.
• Artisans cut stone into blocks & workers tied stone to wooden sleds
& pulled them to Nile River.
• Workers loaded stone onto barges & floated them to the site.
• Blocks were unloaded & dragged or pushed up ramps.
The Pyramids
• Largest pyramid is known as the ______________.
• Located about 10 miles from modern city of Cairo.
• Was built for _____________.
• It is one of three still standing in __________ on the west bank of the
• It rises nearly _______ feet above the desert.
• About the size of 9 football fields & contains about 2.3 million stone
blocks. Each block weighs an average of 2.5 tons!!!