Chapter 14, Sec 1 Chart

Section 1: Church Reforms and the Crusades
1.The Benedictine monastery
founded at Cluny
Reformers wanted to return to
basic Christian principles.
3. Nearly 500 Gothic Cathedrals
were built and decorated between
1170 and 1270.
Church wealthy-represented “City
of God”. Richly decorated,
awesome, beautiful.
Attracted pilgrims, increased
travel, trade, ideas.
5. Pope Urban II issued call for a
Recover the Holy Land, Jerusalem,
from Muslims.
7. Four feudal Crusader states
formed, each ruled by European
Crusader States carved out of land
they won-narrow strip stretched
400 miles Edessa to Jerusalem.
9. In Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand
used Inquisition to suppress
Wanted to unify Spain under
Christianity & consolidate power.
2. Power of pope extended.
Church had own court, tax system,
diplomats, officials
4. The Byzantine emperor appealed to
the Count of Flanders (and Pope
Urban) for help.
Seljuk Turks (Muslims) threatening to
conquer his capital at Constantinople.
6. There was an outpouring of support
for the First Crusade.
Religious zeal, land, riches,
adventure. Get rid of the quarrelsome
8. Jerusalem remained under Muslim
control. Unarmed Christian pilgrims
could visit the city’s holy places.
Saladin & Richard the Lionhearted
agreed to truce in 1192.
10. European kings strengthened their
own power as a result of the
Popes power decreased.
Weakened feudal nobility.
Thousands of knights died and/or lost
their money.
Section 2 Changes in Medieval Society
1. Farmers began using a new
type of harness that fitted
across a horse’s chest.
2. Using the 3-field system,
farmers began to grow crops
on 2/3rds of their land each
year, rather than ½.
3. Merchant and craft guilds
organize and change ways to
do business.
4. The Commercial Revolution
changes trade and banking
5. As trade blossomed and
farming methods improved,
the population of western
Europe rose from around 30
million to about 42 million
between 100-1150.
6. As people left life on the
manor for life in towns, they
challenged the traditional
ways of feudal society in which
everyone knew their place.
7. Authors began writing in
the vernacular.
Horses replaced oxen fro plowing and
pulling wagons.
Food production increase=
Population increase
Guilds gain power/influence:
Socially, politically and
More goods available, new
trade routes, banking gains
Towns grew and flourished
People moved to town to
pursue economic and social
Writers brought literature to
many-most could not read
8. Growing trade and growing Universities, scholarship and
cities brought new interest in students arose in Western
9. Christian scholars from
Europeans acquired huge new
Europe visited Muslim
body of knowledge
libraries in Spain, and Jewish
scholars translated Arabic
copies of Greek writings into