1Tech-Specification-Bridges-in-Stolac

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INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC

CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

Sarajevo, April 2012

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC

CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

DIRECTOR

LIDI

JA MIĆIĆ, architect

AUTHOR OF THE PROJECT:

MA LAMIJA ABDIJEVIĆ, architect

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

3.

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

1.

2.

CONTENT

GENERAL DOCUMENTATION

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

2.1. Location

2.2.

2.3.

Historical data

Architectural description

2.3.1 Ćuprija (Inat ćuprija) – Spite bridge

2.3.2.

Podgradska ćuprija- Podgradska bridge

2.3.3 Ćuprija in Begovina

2.4.

2.5.

Existing condition

2.4.1 Ćuprija (Inat ćurpija)/ Spite bridge

2.4.2 Podgradska bridge

2.4.3 Ćuprija in Begovina

Level of Intervention

BILL OF QUANTITIES

3.1

Ćuprija (Inat ćuprija) – Spite bridge

3.2.

3.3.

Podgradska ćuprija- Podgradska bridge

Ćuprija in Begovina

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

2. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

2.1. Location

Natural-architectural ensemble of the Bregava river basin, with mills, stamping mills and bridges stretches through the whole Stolac town, including the river and all the object s built on it. Three concerned bridges are on the location marked as cadastral plot no. V/133( old survey) , land register entry no. 198; cadastral plot no.IV/29(old survey), land register entry no. 198; Municipality Stolac, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and

Herzegovina.

2.2. Historical data

In Middle Ages, Stolac was developed on the route between Dubrovnik and Serbia. All commercial routes from inland toward the sea and Dubrovnik trade harbor led through

Stolac. Bregava is karst river which rises in Dole, under the mountain Hrgud, and flows into

Neretva in place Klepci, near Čapljina. The largest part of its course flows through Stolac, what makes it a backbone of its historical development. Numerous architectural objects on the river, works of domestic architects, testify to mutual connection, social development and interaction between people and natural environment. Bridges, and particularly mills and stamping mills in Stolac were built by domestic masters.

Since Middle ages up to the present time, 15 bridges have been built in Stolac, out of them

10 are historical buildings. Bridge builders applies the same form: bridges were built in the same way as mills were, the only difference was that they had longer arch spans. There are bridges which were built just as an access to a temple, property or were endowments.

„Inat ćuprija“ – Spite bridge

was one of the oldest bridges. It got its name in 70-s last century. It is not known when it was built or who built it, but it is likely that it is a medieval object, which, with certain adaptations and occasional minor or larger repairs, managed to withstand as a very solid bridge up to the present day. Beside this bridge, there is a mill, mosque, cafe and Turkish bath (hamam).

Podgradska ćuprija (Under town bridge)

got its name after its location

– because it is located under the Old Town. It is assumed that it was built at the beginning of XVIII century.

What tells us that this bridge is younger than Ćuprija is not just added close mark, but the urban structure itself. Clear basic orientation of the settlement and public buildings is toward

„Ćuprija“, while Podgradski most is a kind of entrance into the settlement. As a proof that this bridge is much younger than „Ćuprija“ may serve the fact that the settlement grew next to it, but only on the left riverbank, which means that there wasn’t obligatory limitation of symbiosis of the bridge with urban ambiance. Exact period of its building and architect of this bridge are not known. On the key stone of one of the arches, on the side heading downstream , there is engraved the year 1898, what is obviously the year of its repair. With the repair and upgrade ( extension) , the bridge lost some of its beauty.

The youngest of three bigger stone bridges in Stolac is the one in

Begovina

. It was built by the end of eighteen or at the beginning of nineteenth century, when one of family branches of

Stolac captains Rizvanbegović, moved from Vidoški grad and built for themselves an odžak(manor house) upstream Bregava river, in the eastern periphery of the settlement.

After mentioned odžak , the whole area got the name Begovina. Larger number of

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

Rizvanbegović houses in Begovina were located at the left bank, and as the family grew, their me mbers built their houses on the right side as well. So, Ćuprija in Begovina was primarily important for connecting houses of this powerful family, so beys of this family took care of its preservation and repairs until the Austro-Hungarian rule.

2.3. Description and photo documentation

2.3.1 Ćuprija (Inat ćuprija) – Spite bridge

The bridge has five (5) semicircular arches, which grow in its span and height from river banks toward the center in regular rhythm. Semicircular front arches are clearly drawn on upstream and downstream facade of the bridge. Arches are visibly indrawn in relation to the front walls, and built of more precisely processed material for arches and barrels, contrary to rustically processed front walls.

Road width on the bridge is 4 m on average. Fence walls are 45 cm thick. Achieved stability of this building is emphasized with its shape of relatively narrow and peaked pillars of the bridge, which sharp endings are toward upstream, and their asymmetrical blunt counter forts are on downstream side, and they are more visible then in any other example which we examined in this area.

On the spandrel walls, made of roughly carved stones, there are no any other plastic or constructive details. There is no cornice or parapet, but only spandrel walls over the path on the bridge which form the fence. Although it is the oldest of all Stolac bridges, this bridge is still the most stabile and hardest bridge in this town.

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

2.3.2. Podgradska ćuprija- Podgradska bridge

Podgradska bridge has only two arched openings, of different size, which lean to one pier in the river and two supporting walls. Different spans and height of arch openings give to the bridge its specific asymmetric look. Smaller arch next to the left bank has 5 m span, and bigger one on the right bank has 8 m span. The pier is 2,5 m wide, as well as the other one on upstream side. The width of the roadway is 4,80 m, thickness of fence walls is 35 cm, and total length of the object with its accession parts is around 26,5m.

Arches are built of tuff, with final limestone stone on the downstream side. Spandrel walls are slightly emphasized with differentiation of surfaces, but difference of materials is emphasized, because unlike the front arches, which are made of tuff, these facade surfaces are made of white limestone with relatively regular quadrants and pointed joints.

The way they used materials, as well as contours of the bigger arch, resemble a lot Kozja ćuprija in Sarajevo, which, in its present form, was built at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Roadway of the bridge is emphasized by moulded string course, which is horizontal from the middle of first to the middle of the other arch, then it bends and falls diagonally toward the banks. Has there ever been a parapet of stone blocks over the string , as on majority of bridges, is not known, but today there is a fence made from rather roughly processed stone, which is of different height on upstream side, and made of roughly cut big stones on downstream side.

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

2.3.3 Ćuprija in Begovina

The Bridge has five arch openings, as Ćuprija has, but cannot be compared to it neither by the way of its building, nor by its preservance.

Since the bridge was half destroyed, there was a primitive intervention of present time, with a lot f concrete and without any sense for artistic value of the object.

Bridge arches have asymmetrical oval form. It is possible that, at the beginning, asymmetrical form was not so visible, but over time, due to ground subsidence, those deformations became more visible. Two arches, by the right bank were destroyed after the

First world war, so instead of its reconstruction with adequate material, they were repaired with the concrete. Lower parts of piers were also mended with a concrete so today one cannot tell what was their original shape like. Bridge roadway is almost completely even.

There is no any strong course on it which would emphasize it, there is no parapet, the object is finalized with a concrete fence, which directly leans on spandrel walls, and is leveled with them. On the upstream side of the bridge, there is an open concrete canal for water, what narrowed a bridge and depredated it. Visible built part of the bridge is made of roughly cut stone, which bondages are, at the surface, almost completely washed away. The stone in barrels is slightly better processed. Arch spans on this bridge are equal, from 3,85 to 4,10 meters. Piers are 1,75 m wide, except the one by the left bank, which width is 3,70 m. Width of the roadway is 2,65 m, fence thickness is 15 cm, and total length with accession parts is

35,5 m.

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

2.4. Existing condition

2.4.

1 Ćuprija (Inat ćurpija)/ Spite bridge

Upper triangular finalization of the bridge pylon ( on both sides) were repaired after the II

World war, with cement mortar, which covers its original, stone structure. Bridge construction is in relatively good condition. On some parts, mortar from joints fell off what endangered the stability of stone blocks, primarily on the bridge fence, particularly the crown of stone fence.

On some parts (extension of the bridge structure) there is no stone fence

– wall. Spandrel walls are overgrown with green moss. Original stone blocks of the bridge are today, replaced with an asphalt, because the bridge is used for vehicular traffic. A steel pipe is installed across the downstream side of the bridge.

2.4.2

Podgradska bridge

During the Austro Hungarian rule, the bridge was widened from the downstream side, for more than 2 meters. The bridge is surrounded with wild vegetation, so that, it is poorly visible. The bridge is in relatively good condition. Feet of piers and fence are covered by green moss. These is no triangular ending on central pylon. The mortar from joints fell out on some places or is weakened what causes instability of stone bridge blocks, particularly its fence.

At the right bank, the beginning of stone bridge fence was built in inadequate way. At the left bank, a concrete supporting wall was built which disturbs the ambience in which the bridge is located. Walking surface is covered with asphalt and is used for vehicular traffic.

2.

4.3 Ćuprija in Begovina

Appearance of the bridge was seriously damaged with unskillful intervention after the Second

World War. Two arches on the right bank (destroyed during the II world war) were reconstructed applying the concrete. Damaged parts of the bridge have been repaired with a concrete in a way that it hides the basic shape of bridge piers. On some places, there are no extensions of stone fence (out of the bridge structure). Bridge fence was built from concrete, while a walking surface is of asphalt and is used for vehicular traffic. On the upstream side of the bridge, there is a concrete water canal.

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

2.5. Level of intervention

Works on current maintenance include the following interventions:

-

-

-

Cleaning of all stone surfaces from wild plants;

Dismantling a part or whole stone fence wall of the bridge

Rebuilding of dismantled parts

-

-

Cleaning of existing joints

Pointing up

-

-

-

-

-

Removal of existing damaged stone blocks

Building of new crown of the fence wall

Removal of asphalt from walking surfaces

Placement of new stone blocks on waking bridge surface

Manual cleaning of surfaces with brushes

CLEANING OF STONE WALLS FROM THE VEGETATION

Appearance and growth of vegetation on stone bridge walls degrades the surface of the walls but their inner parts as well. That may cause separation of the covering wall from its filling, and end up with falling out of some of the blocks. So, it is necessary, first of all, to clean all surfaces of the stone wall, carefully from wild plants.

REPLACEMENT OF DAMAGED AND EMBEDDING THE NEW STONE BLOCKS

Stone masonry works includes replacement of damaged parts of stone blocks and re building of missing parts of the fence wall on the bridge.

On places, which are considered to have serious damages of stone blocks, it is necessary to dismantle the part of the wall. Dismantled stone blocks, which are not damaged (which may be used for rebuilding) should be numbered, sorted and put on the location foreseen for that purpose. Blocks which are seriously damaged should be transported to a depot.

Sort of new stone blocks should have the same characteristics as the existing stone. Stone is roughly cut, of dimensions and shape as the existing ones. Building has to be carried out with lime mortar , following the row of existing wall. Stone has to be processed before embedding and prepared and processed stone will be laid into the mortar. Embedded stone block should be cut so that it is stabile in its position. It is not allowed to secure the stability of a stone block with adding smaller stone pieces. Binding material for building is lime mortar, a mixture of lime and brick dust.

CLANING OF EXISTING JOINTS AND RE-GROUTING

Existing joints are in rather bad condition, mortar is mainly washed away, and there is a possibility that some stone blocks may move. On some spots, inadequate interventions were carried out where they used cement mortar, which is to be removed. Generally, all joints have to be carefully and manually cleaned 3 cm in depth.

New grouting should be carried out with lime mortar, made of hydrated lime with fly ash added to it. Adding a fly ash, improves the resistance to the influence of weathering.

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

INSTITUTE FOR PROTECTION OF MONUMENTS WITHIN THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF CULTURE

AND SPORTS

REMOVAL OF EXISTING DAMAGED STONE BLOCKS AND RE BUILDING OF NEW

ONES ON THE CROWN OF FENCE WALL

Existing stone blocks on the crown of fence wall, which are damaged, have to be removed and put to defined location. New blocks will be cut according to drafts and details. Some elements are of semicircular shape, 35-45 cm wide and 25 cm high. They are laid into the lime mortar used for stone masonry.

REMOVAL OF ASPHALT FROM WALKING SURFACES AND LAYING OF STONE

BLOCKS

Since Inat ćuprija and Ćuprija in Begovina shall be used just as pedestrian bridges, it is necessary to remove existing asphalt and layers of 30 cm.

Before laying stone blocks, a 10 cm thick layer of gravel will be charged and leveled, over which a layer of mortar with bauxite will be put. This layer has hydro insulation capacity and is laid inclined. Stone blocks ,10 cm thick, of irregular shape, are laid into the layer of lime mortar, 5 cm thick.

MANUAL CLEANING OF STONE SURFACES

All existing stone blocks of the bridge shall be cleaned. Cleaning is performed manually, with rotational steel brushes and water, and where needed, stone surfaces are sandblasted.

PROJECT ARCH STOLAC – CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIGDES (INAT, PODGRADSKA,

BEGOVINA) IN STOLAC

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