Vertebrate - Arapahoe High School

Biology Unit 7: Animals
Unit Review Sheet
Date_______________Pd _______
General Characteristics
1. All animals belong to Kingdom ______________Animalia______________ and are (circle):
2. Most animals (circle) move/are sessile.
3. Most animals reproduce (circle) asexually/sexually.
4. Put these terms in order from early to later development: Zygote, Gastrula, Gamete, Embryo,
Blastula (Be sure you can define each one!)
Gametes: (sperm and egg) haploid sex cells from the male and female
Zygote: diploid cell that results from fertilization
Blastula: hollow ball of cells
Gastrula: hollow ball of cells folds in on itself forming a tube through the center
Embryo: organism in early stages of development
5. At the gastrula stage, cells begin to differentiate into different tissues. Label each layer. What
does each become?
Endoderm: Becomes lining
of digestive track
Becomes skin
and nervous
Mesoderm: Becomes
organs and muscles
6. There are three basic types of symmetry. List & give an example of each.
 Asymmetrical
 Radial
 Bilateral
Example: Sponge, no symmetry
Example: Starfish, cut like a pie
Example: Human (anything with a head) one line down the middle
7. Label anterior, posterior, ventral and dorsal on the animal below:
Another term for:
Depend on environment for temp
Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles
Control temp with metabolism
Birds, Mammals
9. The Animal Kingdom is divided into two major groups based on the presence or absence of a
___backbone___________________. The two divisions are __Vertebrates, Invertebrates__________.
10. True or False. Most animals are vertebrates. (95% of all animals are INVERTEBRATES)
The Invertebrates
11. Put the letter of the correct phylum next to the nickname, description, or examples. You may
use each answer more than once. Some questions have more than one answer
_________ “Spiny-Skinned” (G)
A. Porifera
_________ Jelly Fish, Anemone, Coral (B)
B. Cnidaria
_________ Animals with an exoskeleton and jointed legs (H)
C. Platyhelminthes
_________ Snail, Squid, Octopus (F)
D. Nematoda
_________ Tape Worms, Flukes (C)
E. Annelida
_________ “Jointed Leg” (H)
F. Mollusca
_________ Sponges (A)
G. Echinodermata
_________ Hookworm, Pinworm (D)
H. Arthropoda
_________ Earthworm, Leech (E)
_________ 2 Body Openings (D  H)
_________ “Flatworms” (C)
_________ Spider, Crab, Millipede (H)
_________ Starfish, Sea Urchin (G)
_________ “Thin Shell/Soft Body” (F)
_________ “Pore Bearer” (A)
_________ Radial Symmetry (B, G)
_________ Most Numerous (H)
_________ 1 Body Opening (B and C)
_________ No Organized Tissues or Organs (A)
_________ Endoskeleton (G)
_________ Gastropods, Bivalves, & Cephalopods (F)
12. How does the number of digestive body openings relate to the complexity of invertebrates?
The more openings, the more complex the organism…0, 1, or 2
13. What does the degree of cephalization tell us about an invertebrate?
Cephalization  does the organism have a head, nerve cells gathered at one end?
The more developed the head, the more complex the organism. Ex: a worm has a
cluster of nerve cells at the head end, but not an actual head. It is less complex than a
The Vertebrates
14. All vertebrates are members of Phylum Chordata ______________________________________.
15. List three characteristics of chordates.
Gills, Notochord, Tail, Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
16. True or False. All chordates are vertebrates. (There are chordates that don’t develop a
backbone, they keep the four characteristics their entire life.)
17. List the seven classes of vertebrates and give an example of each.
Agnatha  lamprey, hagfish
Chondrichthyes  sharks, skates, rays
Osteichthyes  eel, trout, salmon…
Amphibia  frog, toad, salamanders…
Reptiles  crocodiles, alligators, turtles
Aves  duck, ostrich, eagle
Mammals  monotremes, marsupials, placental
18. Name That Vertebrate! (There may be more than one answer, & answers can be used more
than once!
Has two heart chambers Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes
Frogs, toads, and salamanders Amphibia
Has internal fertilization Chondrichthyes, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia
Two main groups of osteichthyes Lobe Fin (coelacanth, lungfish) Ray Fin (all others)
Lay amniotic eggs Reptilia, Aves, Monotremes
Endothermic Aves, Mammalia
Ectothermic Agnatha, Osteichthyes, Chondrichtyes, Amphibians, Reptilia
Lampreys & hagfish Agnatha
Skin modified to feathers Aves
Undergoes metamorphosis Amphibia
Has a cartilaginous skeleton Agnatha, Chondrichthyes
Has three heart chambers Amphibia, Reptilia
Sharks, skates, and rays Chondrichthyes
Milk, hair, care for young Mammalia
Have hollow bones Aves
Jawless fish Agnatha
Skin modified to scales Osteichthyes, Chondrychthes, Reptilia
Name means “double life” Amphibia
19. List two ways that reptiles and arthropods are different.
Invertebrate vs. Vertebrate
External vs. Internal Fertilization
Endoskeleton vs. Exoskeleton
20. List two ways that birds and mammals are similar.
Internal Fertilization
Four Heart Chambers
Live on Land, Air, Water
21. List two ways that cnidarians and mollusks are different.
Number of Body Openings (Cnidarians 1, Mollusks 2)
Radial (Cnidarians) vs. Bilateral (Mollusks) Symmetry
Habitat (Water Only vs. Land & Water)
22. List two ways that arthropods and annelids are similar.
Bilateral Symmetry
Two Body Openings